How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Souza Pereira R. Yet the path is strewn with needless obstacles. Nature 2000;407:834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicogna I, Wahr J. Acceleration of Greenland ice mass loss in spring 2004. Nature 2006;443:329–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu B, Chen J, Singer RH. Background free imaging of single mRNAs in live cells using split fluorescent proteins. Sci Rep 2014;4:3615.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Khan P, Saxena T, Jain H, Adarsh KV. Nanosecond light induced, thermally tunable transient dual absorption bands in a-Ge₅As₃₀Se₆₅ thin film. Sci Rep 2014;4:6573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gu X, Jiang N, Ji K, Li H, Qiu X, Li W, et al. Self-healing Control Technology for Distribution Networks. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Orey M, Jones SA, Branch RM, editors. Educational Media and Technology Yearbook: Volume 38. vol. 38. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
McDermott R. Prospect Theory and Negotiation. In: Sjöstedt G, Avenhaus R, editors. Negotiated Risks: International Talks on Hazardous Issues, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 1–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements.

Blog post
Andrew E. Stanford Scientists Develop A Way To Wirelessly Transfer Power To Deep Tissue Implants. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Perspectives on Evaluating Federally Sponsored Research and Development in the United States]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan SA. An exploratory case study: U. S. Army’s leadership development for organizational leaders. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Circle of Hell: the Staff Meeting. New York Times 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease Supplements
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis. Suppl.
ISSN (print)1594-5804

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