How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Svoboda P. Journal club. A molecular biologist explores how new genomic tools can be applied to wild animals. Nature 2010;465:529.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Chouard T, Gray N. Glia. Nature 2010;468:213.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Sun BK, Siprashvili Z, Khavari PA. Advances in skin grafting and treatment of cutaneous wounds. Science 2014;346:941–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Piškorec M, Antulov-Fantulin N, Novak PK, Mozetič I, Grčar M, Vodenska I, et al. Cohesiveness in financial news and its relation to market volatility. Sci Rep 2014;4:5038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Davis M, McKimm J, Forrest K. How to Assess Doctors and Health Professionals. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Petrosino A, Maddalena L, Pala P, editors. New Trends in Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2013: ICIAP 2013 International Workshops, Naples, Italy, September 9-13, 2013. Proceedings. vol. 8158. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Obermaisser R. Formal Specification of Gateways in Integrated Architectures. In: Brinkschulte U, Givargis T, Russo S, editors. Software Technologies for Embedded and Ubiquitous Systems: 6th IFIP WG 10.2 International Workshop, SEUS 2008, Anacarpi, Capri Island, Italy, October 1-3, 2008 Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 34–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. White Bread Is Healthier For Some People Than Whole Grain. IFLScience 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ March 2001 Expenditure Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Nakano AM. Community college swirlers and the transfer function. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Lee L. 10 Young Upstarts Strut Their Stuff in Miami. New York Times 2011:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease Supplements
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis. Suppl.
ISSN (print)1594-5804
ScopeGastroenterology
Hepatology

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