How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Eisenstein M. Molecular biology: Remove, reuse, recycle. Nature 2014;514:S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Huang ML, Yang F. Size effect model on kinetics of interfacial reaction between Sn-xAg-yCu solders and Cu substrate. Sci Rep 2014;4:7117.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Block CE. Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Nature 2006;444:875–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Montoro DT, Haber AL, Biton M, Vinarsky V, Lin B, Birket SE, et al. A revised airway epithelial hierarchy includes CFTR-expressing ionocytes. Nature 2018;560:319–24.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Gowler DB. James Through the Centuries. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Zeevat H, Schmitz H-C, editors. Bayesian Natural Language Semantics and Pragmatics. vol. 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Reed K, Bornstein BH. Using Mock Jury Studies to Measure Community Sentiment Toward Child Sexual Abusers. In: Miller MK, Blumenthal JA, Chamberlain J, editors. Handbook of Community Sentiment, New York, NY: Springer; 2015, p. 57–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements.

Blog post
[1]
Hale T. This 800-Year-Old Man Was Probably Killed By A Boomerang. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/this-800yearold-man-was-probably-killed-by-a-boomerang/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. VA Information Technology: Important Initiatives Begun, Yet Serious Vulnerabilities Persist. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Mack DL. The Cost of Credit: Protecting Consumers in a Regulated Fringe Credit Market. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Koblin J. ‘The Show That I Was Born to Do.’ New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease Supplements
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis. Suppl.
ISSN (print)1594-5804
ScopeGastroenterology
Hepatology

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