How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Eckhardt B. Applied physics. A critical point for turbulence. Science 2011;333:165–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Schacter DL, Addis DR. Constructive memory: the ghosts of past and future. Nature 2007;445:27.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Stern M, Umansky V, Bar-Joseph I. Exciton liquid in coupled quantum wells. Science 2014;343:55–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Aoki ST, Settembre EC, Trask SD, Greenberg HB, Harrison SC, Dormitzer PR. Structure of rotavirus outer-layer protein VP7 bound with a neutralizing Fab. Science 2009;324:1444–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Gasch A, Gasch B. Successfully Choosing Your EMR. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Chen Z, Chen H, Miao Q, Fu Y, Fox E, Lim E-P, editors. Digital Libraries: International Collaboration and Cross-Fertilization: 7th International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, ICADL 2004, Shanghai, China, December 13-17, 2004. Proceedings. vol. 3334. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Grønbæk B, Valente P, Hallenborg K. Information Extraction System Using Indoor Location and Activity Plan. In: Demazeau Y, Pěchoucěk M, Corchado JM, Pérez JB, editors. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 33–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti A. Looking For Traces Of The First Stars In The Universe. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/space/looking-for-traces-of-the-first-stars-in-the-universe/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Delivery of Key Benefits Hinges on States’ Achieving Compliance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Burns KN. Impact of Cognitive Tasks on Gait Parameters in Collegiate Athletes. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. ‘Sisters in Law.’ New York Times 2015:BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease Supplements
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis. Suppl.
ISSN (print)1594-5804
ScopeGastroenterology
Hepatology

Other styles