How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Burns JA. The four hundred years of planetary science since Galileo and Kepler. Nature 2010;466:575–84.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Cho US, Xu W. Crystal structure of a protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimeric holoenzyme. Nature 2007;445:53–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Lee LH, Yang H, Bigras G. Current breast cancer proliferative markers correlate variably based on decoupled duration of cell cycle phases. Sci Rep 2014;4:5122.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Prucca CG, Slavin I, Quiroga R, Elías EV, Rivero FD, Saura A, et al. Antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is regulated by RNA interference. Nature 2008;456:750–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Taha A-EM, Hassanein HS, Ali NA. LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Sakawa M. Fuzzy Stochastic Multiobjective Programming. vol. 159. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Chin J-J, Heng S-H, Goi B-M. An Efficient and Provable Secure Identity-Based Identification Scheme in the Standard Model. In: Mjølsnes SF, Mauw S, Katsikas SK, editors. Public Key Infrastructure: 5th European PKI Workshop: Theory and Practice, EuroPKI 2008 Trondheim, Norway, June 16-17, 2008 Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 60–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease Supplements.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Herschel Discovers Water Building Molecules Around Dying Stars. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/space/herschel-discovers-water-building-molecules-around-dying-stars/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Review of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare’s Actions To Carry Out the Provisions of the National Cooley’s Anemia Control Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Pierce ZD. The relationship between nursing instructors’ transformational leadership behaviors in the clinical learning environment and associate degree nursing students’ communication apprehension. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Burghardt LF. After 63 Years, A Boardwalk Is Back. New York Times 2007:LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease Supplements
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis. Suppl.
ISSN (print)1594-5804
ScopeGastroenterology
Hepatology

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