How to format your references using the Metabolic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laybourn-Parry, J., 2009. Microbiology. No place too cold. Science 324, 1521–1522.
A journal article with 2 authors
Al Khawaja, U., Stoof, H., 2001. Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate. Nature 411, 918–920.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brunkard, J.O., Runkel, A.M., Zambryski, P.C., 2015. Evolution. Comment on “A promiscuous intermediate underlies the evolution of LEAFY DNA binding specificity.” Science 347, 621.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nardi, F., Spinsanti, G., Boore, J.L., Carapelli, A., Dallai, R., Frati, F., 2003. Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299, 1887–1889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samuels, J., 2015. The Trader’s Pendulum. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brezzi, F., Colli Franzone, P., Gianazza, U., Gilardi, G. (Eds.), 2013. Analysis and Numerics of Partial Differential Equations, Springer INdAM Series. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Eaton, G.R., Eaton, S.S., Barr, D.P., Weber, R.T., 2010. Practical Advice About Crucial Parameters, in: Eaton, S.S., Barr, D.P., Weber, R.T. (Eds.), Quantitative EPR: A Practitioners Guide. Springer, Vienna, pp. 63–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Secret Life of Native Bees [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Space Shuttle Facility Program: More Definitive Cost Information Needed (No. PSAD-77-17). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murillo, K., 2010. An analysis of California community college budget policy key components in multicollege districts (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., 2017. James Staley’s Series of Unfortunate Events. New York Times BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laybourn-Parry, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Al Khawaja and Stoof, 2001; Laybourn-Parry, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Al Khawaja and Stoof, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Nardi et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Engineering
AbbreviationMetab. Eng.
ISSN (print)1096-7176
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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