How to format your references using the Metabolic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2009. World view: Experts and democracy. Nature 462, 275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank, T., Friedrich, R.W., 2015. Neurobiology: Individuality sniffed out in flies. Nature 526, 200–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coplan, P.M., Mitchnick, M., Rosenberg, Z.F., 2004. Public health. Regulatory challenges in microbicide development. Science 304, 1911–1912.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yao, Q., Lu, Z.-H., Zhang, Z., Chen, X., Lan, Y., 2014. One-pot synthesis of core-shell Cu@SiO2 nanospheres and their catalysis for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane and hydrazine borane. Sci. Rep. 4, 7597.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P.I., 2013. Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Harris, D. (Ed.), 2014. Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 11th International Conference, EPCE 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kühn, H., Karst, F., Heydeck, D., 2016. Catalytic Multiplicity of 15-Lipoxygenase-1 Orthologs (ALOX15) of Different Species, in: Steinhilber, D. (Ed.), Lipoxygenases in Inflammation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Engineering.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Holy Hand Grenade Dating Back To The Crusades Discovered In Israel [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Air Force Aircraft: Reorganizing Mobility Aircraft Units Could Reduce Costs (No. NSIAD-98-55). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slade, M.R., 2008. The adaptive nature of organizational silence: A cybernetic exploration of the hidden factory (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2016. After a Debacle, the Jets Already Face Their Potential Moment of Reckoning. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Frank and Friedrich, 2015; Macilwain, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frank and Friedrich, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Yao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Engineering
AbbreviationMetab. Eng.
ISSN (print)1096-7176
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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