How to format your references using the Metabolic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitzgerald, G., 2010. Drug development needs a new brand of science. Nature 468, 869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeates, T.O., Beeby, M., 2006. Biochemistry. Proteins in a small world. Science 314, 1882–1883.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wara, M.W., Ravelo, A.C., Delaney, M.L., 2005. Permanent El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene warm period. Science 309, 758–761.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Baek, S.K., Yi, I.G., Park, H.J., Kim, B.J., 2013. Universal statistics of the knockout tournament. Sci. Rep. 3, 3198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holzman, G., CVT VTS De, Raffel, T., CVT VTS Su, 2015. Surgical Patient Care for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Nixon, P.J., Sims, I. (Eds.), 2016. RILEM Recommendations for the Prevention of Damage by Alkali-Aggregate Reactions in New Concrete Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 219-ACS, 1st ed. 2016. ed, RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Ogryczak, W., 2008. WOWA Enhancement of the Preference Modeling in the Reference Point Method, in: Torra, V., Narukawa, Y. (Eds.), Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference, MDAI 2008 Sabadell, Spain, October 30-31, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 38–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Engineering.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. NASA Is Hiring Astronauts, And You Could Apply [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Space Launch System: Resources Need to be Matched to Requirements to Decrease Risk and Support Long Term Affordability (No. GAO-14-631). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Churney, K., 2014. Drawing and multimodality communication training as an effective treatment option for individuals with nonfluent aphasia (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dwyer, K.P., 2006. Workers Warm to Contract Jobs. New York Times 104.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fitzgerald, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fitzgerald, 2010; Yeates and Beeby, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yeates and Beeby, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Baek et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Engineering
AbbreviationMetab. Eng.
ISSN (print)1096-7176
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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