How to format your references using the Metabolic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Messenger, S., 2000. Identification of molecular-cloud material in interplanetary dust particles. Nature 404, 968–971.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakse, N., Pasturel, A., 2013. Liquid Aluminum: atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics. Sci. Rep. 3, 3135.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khalil, A.M., Cambier, J.C., Shlomchik, M.J., 2012. B cell receptor signal transduction in the GC is short-circuited by high phosphatase activity. Science 336, 1178–1181.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vandewauw, I., De Clercq, K., Mulier, M., Held, K., Pinto, S., Van Ranst, N., Segal, A., Voet, T., Vennekens, R., Zimmermann, K., Vriens, J., Voets, T., 2018. A TRP channel trio mediates acute noxious heat sensing. Nature 555, 662–666.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Foote, M., Hillier, J., Mitchell-Wallace, K., Jones, M., 2017. Natural catastrophe risk management and modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Pehrson, L., Oxelheim, L., Gustavsson, S. (Eds.), 2009. How Unified Is the European Union?: European Integration Between Visions and Popular Legitimacy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Strand, P., 2008. Introduction – Norwegian Perspective on Nuclear Legacy, in: Sneve, M.K., Kiselev, M.F. (Eds.), Challenges in Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulation of the Nuclear Legacy, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 27–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolic Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Fish Oil Or Snake Oil? Most Capsules Don’t Contain What They Promise [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Hazardous Waste: Problems and Cleanup Efforts at an FAA Facility in Oklahoma City (No. RCED-88-113FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, K.M., 2008. Meanings of “design” in instructional technology: A conceptual analysis based on the field’s foundational literature (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D.A., 2006. On Road or Trail, Navigating Made Simple. New York Times 56.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Messenger, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Jakse and Pasturel, 2013; Messenger, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jakse and Pasturel, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Vandewauw et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolic Engineering
AbbreviationMetab. Eng.
ISSN (print)1096-7176
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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