How to format your references using the Archives of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Piran T (2002) Astronomy. Demotion looms for gamma-ray bursts. Science 295:986–987
A journal article with 2 authors
Ueshima R, Asami T (2003) Evolution: single-gene speciation by left-right reversal. Nature 425:679
A journal article with 3 authors
Couch S, Sparks RS, Carroll MR (2001) Mineral disequilibrium in lavas explained by convective self-mixing in open magma chambers. Nature 411:1037–1039
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Freeman R, Weinstein E, Marincola E, et al (2001) Careers. Competition and careers in biosciences. Science 294:2293–2294

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang J, Wang Q (2012) Body Area Communications. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Fabbro S (ed) (2015) Mega Transport Infrastructure Planning: European Corridors in Local-Regional Perspective, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Sen S, Zhou Z, Huang K (2011) Stochastic Decomposition and Extensions. In: Infanger G (ed) Stochastic Programming: The State of the Art In Honor of George B. Dantzig. Springer, New York, NY, pp 57–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Drones Capture Stunning Images Of Orca Pod. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Strategic Planning Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs across Multiple Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lopez V (2015) The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yoo J (2017) Executive Power Run Amok. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Piran 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Piran 2002; Ueshima and Asami 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ueshima and Asami 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Freeman et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Microbiology
AbbreviationArch. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0302-8933
ISSN (online)1432-072X
Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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