How to format your references using the Archives of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blumenthal MS. National Academy of Sciences: Move with the times. Nature. 2013;494(7438):423-424.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lorenz UJ, Zewail AH. Nanofluidics. Observing liquid flow in nanotubes by 4D electron microscopy. Science. 2014;344(6191):1496-1500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fedorov AV, Brierley CM, Emanuel K. Tropical cyclones and permanent El Niño in the early Pliocene epoch. Nature. 2010;463(7284):1066-1070.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ridderinkhof KR, de Vlugt Y, Bramlage A, et al. Alcohol consumption impairs detection of performance errors in mediofrontal cortex. Science. 2002;298(5601):2209-2211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baher H. Signal Processing and Integrated Circuits. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Reid J. JavaScript Programmer’s Reference. (Valentine T, ed.). Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Sotelo JC, Seminario JM. Some Recent Studies on the Local Reactivity of O2 on Pt3 Nanoislands Supported on Mono- and Bi-Metallic Backgrounds. In: Balbuena PB, Subramanian VR, eds. Theory and Experiment in Electrocatalysis. Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry. New York, NY: Springer; 2010:203-242.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. Friendship Helps Chimps De-Stress. IFLScience. Published November 11, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: The 1973 Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Contractor Selection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ressler KM. The path to leadership for Native American women at North Dakota tribal colleges. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR. U.S. Military Says It Shot Down Drone That Attacked American Allies in Syria. New York Times. June 8, 2017:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-9926
ISSN (online)1538-3679
ScopeInternal Medicine

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