How to format your references using the Archives of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palmer T. Climate forecasting: build high-resolution global climate models. Nature. 2014;515(7527):338-339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smaglik P, Smith A. A route to flexible working. Nature. 2002;415(6872):4-6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mora C, Danovaro R, Loreau M. Alternative hypotheses to explain why biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships are concave-up in some natural ecosystems but concave-down in manipulative experiments. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5427.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lake JA, Quick WP, Beerling DJ, Woodward FI. Plant development. Signals from mature to new leaves. Nature. 2001;411(6834):154.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horstmeyer SL. The Weather Almanac. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Soccol CR, Brar SK, Faulds C, Ramos LP, eds. Green Fuels Technology: Biofuels. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hellman D. An Epistemic Defense of Precedent. In: Peters CJ, ed. Precedent in the United States Supreme Court. Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice. Springer Netherlands; 2013:63-76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Homeopathic Drops and Pills Recalled Because They Might Contain Real Medicine. IFLScience. Published March 30, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: FRA’s Staffing Model Cannot Estimate Inspectors Needed for Safety Mission. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sun Z. A Qualitative Study of Chinese Parents’ Beliefs, Involvement and Challenges in Support of Their Children’s English Language Development in China. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. As a Butterfly or as a Bee, Ali Made an Impression. New York Times. June 4, 2016:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-9926
ISSN (online)1538-3679
ScopeInternal Medicine

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