How to format your references using the Archives of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huang KG. Intellectual property. China’s innovation landscape. Science. 2010;329(5992):632-633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levine M, Tjian R. Transcription regulation and animal diversity. Nature. 2003;424(6945):147-151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Killgore WDS, Olson EA, Weber M. Physical exercise habits correlate with gray matter volume of the hippocampus in healthy adult humans. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3457.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao X, Zhang Z, Wang L, et al. Excellent microwave absorption property of Graphene-coated Fe nanocomposites. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3421.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donald H, Robert D. G. Longitudinal Data Analysis: Hedeker/Longitudinal. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Jorgensen P. Extensions of Positive Definite Functions: Applications and Their Harmonic Analysis. Vol 2160. (Pedersen S, Tian F, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Brinkmann M, Khare K, Seemann R. Control of Liquids by Surface Energies. In: Hardt S, Schönfeld F, eds. Microfluidic Technologies for Miniaturized Analysis Systems. Springer US; 2007:157-202.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Supernova Observation Sheds Light On The Origins Of Cosmic Dust. IFLScience. Published July 10, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Overpayment of Title I Funds at the Richmond City Public School System During FY 1978. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gindin M. Identification and Characterization of Putative Secreted Proteins from the Adult-Stage Hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Troy T. How Conservatives Can Find Their Way. New York Times. July 8, 2017:SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-9926
ISSN (online)1538-3679
ScopeInternal Medicine

Other styles