How to format your references using the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Spielmann C. Ultrafast dynamics. Electrons take the fast track through silicon. Science. 2014;346(6215):1293–1294.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. McCormick C, Ganem D. The kaposin B protein of KSHV activates the p38/MK2 pathway and stabilizes cytokine mRNAs. Science. 2005;307(5710):739–741.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fenton LK, Geissler PE, Haberle RM. Global warming and climate forcing by recent albedo changes on Mars. Nature. 2007;446(7136):646–649.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Li M-M, Jiang T, Sun Z, Zhang Q, Tan C-C, Yu J-T, Tan L. Genome-wide microRNA expression profiles in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4734.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zwecher MJ. Retirement Portfolios Workbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Hammond T, Valentine S, Adler A (eds.). Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXII, 385 p. 174 illus., 159 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mohnhaupt H. The Object of Interpretation: Legislation and Competing Normative Sources of Law in Europe During the 16th to 18th Centuries. In: Morigiwa Y, Stolleis M, Halperin J-L (eds.). Interpretation of Law in the Age of Enlightenment: From the Rule of the King to the Rule of Law. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 61–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Body Invaders: Caterpillar Edition [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Monte Canfield, Jr., 1974-1978. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Dec. Report No.: OP-17-OH.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lee JY. Socio-Spatial Exclusion Based on Human Activities and Social Networks in Space-Time: A Case Study of Koreans in Columbus, Ohio [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodara S. A Handmade Sea of Sparkling Glass. New York Times. 2016;WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Zoo Wildl. Med.
ISSN (print)1042-7260
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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