How to format your references using the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cyranoski D. Malaysia plans “red book” in its attempts to go green. Nature. 2005;436(7049):313.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Taylor AF, Smith GR. RecBCD enzyme is a DNA helicase with fast and slow motors of opposite polarity. Nature. 2003;423(6942):889–893.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Peng Y, Maiolino R, Cochrane R. Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies. Nature. 2015;521(7551):192–195.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Meyers D, Mukherjee S, Cheng J-G, Middey S, Zhou J-S, Goodenough JB, Gray BA, Freeland JW, Saha-Dasgupta T, Chakhalian J. Zhang-Rice physics and anomalous copper states in A-site ordered perovskites. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tagliani M. The Practical Guide to Wall Street. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Piel J (ed.). Natural Products via Enzymatic Reactions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XII, 212 p. 136 illus., 10 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dang C, Sodt A, Lau C, Youngstrom B, Ng L, Kuan L, Pathak S, Jones A, Hawrylycz M. The Allen Brain Atlas: Delivering Neuroscience to the Web on a Genome Wide Scale. In: Cohen-Boulakia S, Tannen V (eds.). Data Integration in the Life Sciences: 4th International Workshop, DILS 2007, Philadelphia, PA, USA, June 27-29, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 17–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. What’s The Healthiest Position To Sleep In? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information on the Requirement for Strategic Airlift. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Jun. Report No.: PSAD-76-148.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Blackwell PK. Timbre Fantasy: An Analysis on Coloristic Choices in John Corigliano’s Etude Fantasy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Georgia Is Warned by Russia Against Plans to Join NATO. New York Times. 2008;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4–6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Zoo Wildl. Med.
ISSN (print)1042-7260
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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