How to format your references using the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pereira IAC. Microbiology. An enzymatic route to H2 storage. Science. 2013;342(6164):1329–1330.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Thursby J, Thursby M. Research and development. Where is the new science in corporate R&D? Science. 2006;314(5805):1547–1548.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Savrasov SY, Kotliar G, Abrahams E. Correlated electrons in delta-plutonium within a dynamical mean-field picture. Nature. 2001;410(6830):793–795.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Laughlin ST, Baskin JM, Amacher SL, Bertozzi CR. In vivo imaging of membrane-associated glycans in developing zebrafish. Science. 2008;320(5876):664–667.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Svensson H. Cable-Stayed Bridges. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
1. Panigrahi BK, Abraham A, Das S (eds.). Computational Intelligence in Power Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. VIII, 384 p. 185 illus., 60 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Desbordes D, Presles H-N. Multi-Scaled Cellular Detonation. In: Zhang F (ed.). Shock Waves Science and Technology Library, Vol 6: Detonation Dynamics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 281–338.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Internal Compass Guides Deer Fleeing From Carnivores [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Better Data Needed to Rate the Nation’s Highway Conditions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Sep. Report No.: RCED-99-264.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Torres-Partida A. Bridging the gap between faith based leaders and mental health professionals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Jeffries MP. The Rage in Harlem, and Beyond. New York Times. 2017;BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Zoo Wildl. Med.
ISSN (print)1042-7260
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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