How to format your references using the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nafie LA. Physical chemistry: handedness detected by microwaves. Nature. 2013;497(7450):446–448.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sablowski R, Harberd NP. Plant sciences. Plant genes on steroids. Science. 2005;307(5715):1569–1570.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Choudhary A, Kohar V, Sinha S. Taming explosive growth through dynamic random links. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4308.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Reimann J, Schlauderer S, Schmid CP, Langer F, Baierl S, Kokh KA, Tereshchenko OE, Kimura A, Lange C, Güdde J, Höfer U, Huber R. Subcycle observation of lightwave-driven Dirac currents in a topological surface band. Nature. 2018;562(7727):396–400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gywat O, Krenner HJ, Berezovsky J. Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009.
An edited book
1. Goel AK, Jamnik M, Narayanan NH (eds.). Diagrammatic Representation and Inference: 6th International Conference, Diagrams 2010, Portland, OR, USA, August 9-11, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XIII, 356 p. 46 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Harley N. Medical Management of Acute Renal Failure. In: Blakeley S (ed.). Renal Failure and Replacement Therapies. London: Springer; 2008. p. 26–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Study Suggests Newborns Delivered By C-Section Have a Higher risk of Developing Chronic Health Problems [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Computer-Based Patient Records: VA and DOD Efforts to Exchange Health Data Could Benefit from Improved Planning and Project Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Jun. Report No.: GAO-04-687.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fregoso J. Through the pipeline: Degree aspirations of African American and Latino males enrolled in California community colleges [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rutenberg J. How Do You Solve a Problem Like Ben Carson? New York Times. 2015;MM44.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Zoo Wildl. Med.
ISSN (print)1042-7260
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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