How to format your references using the Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ricci-Tersenghi F. Mathematics. Being glassy without being hard to solve. Science. 2010;330(6011):1639–1640.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gregg JM, Kumar A. Applied physics: trawling for complements. Nature. 2014;510(7506):481–482.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Raty J-Y, Schwegler E, Bonev SA. Electronic and structural transitions in dense liquid sodium. Nature. 2007;449(7161):448–451.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Hardy WR, Li L, Wang Z, Sedy J, Fawcett J, Frank E, Kucera J, Pawson T. Combinatorial ShcA docking interactions support diversity in tissue morphogenesis. Science. 2007;317(5835):251–256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Knight HJ. Patent Strategy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Zierhut M, Pavesio C, Ohno S, Orefice F, Rao NA (eds.). Intraocular Inflammation. 1st ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. XXIII, 1609 p. 487 illus., 364 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Guveli A, Ganzeboom HBG, Platt L, Nauck B, Baykara-Krumme H, Eroğlu Ş, Bayrakdar S, Sözeri EK, Spierings N. Migration and Return Migration. In: Ganzeboom HBG, Platt L, Nauck B, Baykara-Krumme H, Eroğlu Ş, Bayrakdar S, Sözeri EK, Spierings N (eds.). Intergenerational Consequences of Migration: Socio-economic, Family and Cultural Patterns of Stability and Change in Turkey and Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 49–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Humans Evolved Faster Metabolism To Support Our Bigger Brains [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation and the Environment: Results From a Survey of the Nation’s 50 Busiest Commercial Service Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Aug. Report No.: RCED-00-222.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sutherland CE. Positive deviance during organization change: Researchers’ social construction of expanded university goals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Turkewitz J, Pérez-Peña R, Healy J. Deluged and Weary, Texas Braces for Years of Recovery. New York Times. 2017;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Zoo Wildl. Med.
ISSN (print)1042-7260
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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