How to format your references using the Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, A. (2002). Life beyond the walls. Nature, 415(6872), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nicholson, J.M. & Ioannidis, J.P.A. (2012). Research grants: Conform and be funded. Nature, 492(7427), 34–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Q.D., Gotthelf, E.V. & Lang, C.C. (2002). A faint discrete source origin for the highly ionized iron emission from the Galactic Centre region. Nature, 415(6868), 148–150.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kovalchuk, I., Kovalchuk, O., Kalck, V., Boyko, V., Filkowski, J., Heinlein, M., et al. (2003). Pathogen-induced systemic plant signal triggers DNA rearrangements. Nature, 423(6941), 760–762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Happer, W., Jau, Y.-Y. & Walker, T. (2010). Optically Pumped Atoms. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Ammari, H. (2007). Polarization and Moment Tensors: With Applications to Inverse Problems and Effective Medium Theory, H Kang, Ed. Springer: New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sykes, A.V., Koueta, N. & Rosas, C. (2014). Historical Review of Cephalopods Culture. In: , Iglesias J, , Fuentes L, & , Villanueva R (eds). Cephalopod Culture. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, pp. 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Marijuana May Affect Fertility of Young Men. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). ADP Contracts: Army Needs to Correct Budget Disclosure Deficiencies. U.S. Government Printing Office. Report number: IMTEC-89-13.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmidt, M.P. (2013). Being here. . Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017). ‘Central Park Jogger’ Series on Netflix. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smith, 2002; Nicholson & Ioannidis, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nicholson & Ioannidis, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Gotthelf & Lang, 2002)
  • Four or more authors: (Kovalchuk et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
AbbreviationAquat. Conserv.
ISSN (print)1052-7613
ISSN (online)1099-0755
ScopeAquatic Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles