How to format your references using the Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burness, G.P. (2002). Ecology. Elephants, mice, and red herrings. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5571), 1245–1247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waters, M.R. & Stafford, T.W., Jr. (2007). Redefining the age of Clovis: implications for the peopling of the Americas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5815), 1122–1126.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okuda, S., Freinkman, E. & Kahne, D. (2012). Cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis powers transport of lipopolysaccharide across the periplasm in E. coli. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6111), 1214–1217.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mangone, M., Manoharan, A.P., Thierry-Mieg, D., Thierry-Mieg, J., Han, T., Mackowiak, S.D., et al. (2010). The landscape of C. elegans 3’UTRs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5990), 432–435.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann, W. (2014). The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Derosas, R. & van Poppel, F. (Eds.). (2006). Religion and the Decline of Fertility in the Western World. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Umetsu, D.T. & DeKruyff, R.H. (2009). Hepatitis A virus, TIM-1 and allergy. In: , Rook GAW (ed). The Hygiene Hypothesis and Darwinian Medicine. Birkhäuser: Basel, pp. 77–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). Republicans Withdraw Plan To Sell Off 3.3 Million Acres Of Public Land After Intense Opposition. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Guaranteed Student Loans: Eliminating Interest Rate Floors Could Generate Substantial Savings. U.S. Government Printing Office. Report number: HRD-92-113.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schewe, E.M. (2016). Re-establishing Connections: Listening to Women Psychology Students Talk about Recovery. . Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, N.D. (2011). A Seer on Banks Raises a Furor on Bonds. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burness, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Burness, 2002; Waters & Stafford, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Waters & Stafford, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Okuda, Freinkman & Kahne, 2012)
  • Four or more authors: (Mangone et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
AbbreviationAquat. Conserv.
ISSN (print)1052-7613
ISSN (online)1099-0755
ScopeAquatic Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles