How to format your references using the Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winnacker, E.-L. (2002). European science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5554), 446.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peebles, P.J.E. & Unruh, W.G. (2008). Obituary: John Wheeler (1911-2008). Nature, 453(7191), 50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Leitch, D.B., Sarko, D.K. & Catania, K.C. (2014). Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles. Scientific reports, 4, 6241.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chandra, V., Huang, P., Hamuro, Y., Raghuram, S., Wang, Y., Burris, T.P., et al. (2008). Structure of the intact PPAR-gamma-RXR- nuclear receptor complex on DNA. Nature, 456(7220), 350–356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertin, E., Crespi, N. & Pujolle, G. (2013). Architecture and Governance for Communication Services. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Koh, J.H.L. (2015). Design Thinking for Education: Conceptions and Applications in Teaching and Learning, CS Chai, B Wong and H-Y Hong, Eds. Springer: Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Kammueller, F. (2012). A Security Model for Functional Active Objects. In: , Cipolla-Ficarra F, , Veltman K, , Cipolla-Ficarra M, & , Kratky A (eds). Communicability, Computer Graphics and Innovative Design for Interactive Systems: First International Symposium, CCGIDIS 2011, Córdoba, Spain, June 28-29, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 42–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Optical Tweezers: Splitting and Colliding Ultracold Atom Clouds. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). National Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services. U.S. Government Printing Office. Report number: T-RCED-89-60.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lange, A.W. (2006). Calcineurin/NFATc1/DSCR1 Pathway Function in Cardiac Valvuloseptal Development and Down Syndrome-Related Phenotypes. . Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Woolfe, Z. (2017). Once Rebels, Now Institutions. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winnacker, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Winnacker, 2002; Peebles & Unruh, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peebles & Unruh, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Leitch, Sarko & Catania, 2014)
  • Four or more authors: (Chandra et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
AbbreviationAquat. Conserv.
ISSN (print)1052-7613
ISSN (online)1099-0755
ScopeAquatic Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles