How to format your references using the Aquatic Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D (2003) When the chips are down. Nature 424:585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holme R, de Viron O (2013) Characterization and implications of intradecadal variations in length of day. Nature 499:202–204.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhn JR, Emilio M, Bush R (2009) Comment on ‘A large excess in apparent solar oblateness due to surface magnetism’. Science 324:1143; author reply 1143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jung HY, Chun H, Park S, Kang S-H, Ahn CW, Kwon Y-K, Upmanyu M, Ajayan PM, Jung YJ (2013) Liquid metal nanodroplet dynamics inside nanocontainers. Sci Rep 3:2588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Derbyshire E (2011) Nutrition in the Childbearing Years. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Pandey GK (ed) (2015) Elucidation of Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomics Perspectives, Volume 2. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Debru C (2014) On the Relationship between Neuroscience and Philosophy: the Case of Sleep and Dreaming. In: European Philosophy of Science – Philosophy of Science in Europe and the Viennese Heritage. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook, Galavotti MC, Nemeth E, Stadler F (eds) Springer International Publishing, Cham, p 57–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Biology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Neanderthals Survived Early Contact With Humans. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Technology Transfer: Japanese Firms Involved in F-15 Coproduction and Civil Aircraft Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dillon M (2014) Active aging program for older adults with early stage dementia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Solving a Dress-Design Sudoku. New York Times:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon 2003, Holme & de Viron 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holme & de Viron 2013)
  • Three authors: (Kuhn et al. 2009)
  • 99 or more authors: (Jung et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Biology
AbbreviationAquat. Biol.
ISSN (print)1864-7782
ISSN (online)1864-7790
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles