How to format your references using the Aquatic Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baraniuk RG (2011) More is less: signal processing and the data deluge. Science 331:717–719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Michaelis S & Hrycyna CA (2013) Biochemistry. A protease for the ages. Science 339:1529–1530.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padture NP, Gell M & Jordan EH (2002) Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications. Science 296:280–284.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sumioka H, Nakae A, Kanai R & Ishiguro H (2013) Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels. Sci Rep 3:3034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paris JL & Paris JL (2008) CliffsNotes® Praxis II®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pardo L, Balakrishnan N & Gil MÁ eds. (2011) Modern Mathematical Tools and Techniques in Capturing Complexity. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chandra R, Gupta A, Ong Y-S & Goh C-K (2016) Evolutionary Multi-task Learning for Modular Training of Feedforward Neural Networks. In: Neural Information Processing: 23rd International Conference, ICONIP 2016, Kyoto, Japan, October 16–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, A. Hirose, S. Ozawa, K. Doya, K. Ikeda, M. Lee & D. Liu (eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham. pp. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Biology.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Men Commit More Violent Crimes When They Are Surrounded By Women, Claims Study. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Information Technology: VA and DOD Continue to Expand Sharing of Medical Information, but Still Lack Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martin LK (2016) Norway leads the world in gender equality and work-life balance: A qualitative life course study of Norwegian women.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson M (2017) Sentencing Will Provide Coda for Television Producer’s Real Crime Drama. New York Times:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baraniuk 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baraniuk 2011; Michaelis & Hrycyna 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Michaelis & Hrycyna 2013)
  • Three authors: (Padture, Gell & Jordan 2002)
  • 99 or more authors: (Sumioka, Nakae, Kanai & Ishiguro 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Biology
AbbreviationAquat. Biol.
ISSN (print)1864-7782
ISSN (online)1864-7790
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles