How to format your references using the Computational Particle Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Particle Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engheta N (2013) Materials science. Pursuing near-zero response. Science 340:286–287
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray JA, Roth BL (2002) Cell biology. A last GASP for GPCRs? Science 297:529–531
A journal article with 3 authors
Khashan SA, Alazzam A, Furlani EP (2014) Computational analysis of enhanced magnetic bioseparation in microfluidic systems with flow-invasive magnetic elements. Sci Rep 4:5299
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sekine T, Kakuta T, Nakamura T, et al (2014) A macroscopic reaction: direct covalent bond formation between materials using a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Sci Rep 4:6348

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheldrake P (2014) The Spiritual City. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Wiegandt E (2008) Mountains: Sources of Water, Sources of Knowledge. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Barbierato E, Gribaudo M, Manini D (2016) Fluid Approximation of Pool Depletion Systems. In: Wittevrongel S, Phung-Duc T (eds) Analytical and Stochastic Modelling Techniques and Applications: 23rd International Conference, ASMTA 2016, Cardiff, UK, August 24-26, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 60–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Particle Mechanics.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Fossil of Earliest Known Baboon Unearthed in South Africa. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Information Resellers: Consumer Privacy Framework Needs to Reflect Changes in Technology and the Marketplace. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne LG (2015) The experience of caring for women with drug or alcohol problems in the general hospital. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold K, de la MERCED MJ (2017) Uber Leader, in Visit to London, Appeals to Regain Operating License. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Particle Mechanics
AbbreviationComput. Part. Mech.
ISSN (print)2196-4378
ISSN (online)2196-4386

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