How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2011) Vaccines: a moving target. Nature 474 (7350): S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ausländer, S., and Fussenegger, M. (2014) Synthetic biology: Toehold gene switches make big footprints. Nature 516 (7531): 333–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, D., Kim, M., and Cho, K.-H. (2014) A design principle underlying the paradoxical roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Sci. Rep. 4: 5573.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, H.-M., Cho, Y. S., Kim, H., Jho, S., Son, B., Choi, J. Y., Kim, S., Lee, B. C., Bhak, J., and Jang, G. (2013) Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs. Sci. Rep. 3: 2998.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mead, D. E. (2013) Becoming a Marriage and Family Therapist. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Turner, D. A. ed. (2011) Quality in Higher Education. SensePublishers: Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Liao, Z., Hu, M., Rui, M., Cao, S., and Liao, Z. (2010) (∈ , ∈ ∨ q (λ, μ))-Fuzzy h-Ideals of Hemirings. In Fuzzy Information and Engineering 2010: Volume I, Cao, B.-Y., Wang, G.-J., Guo, S.-Z., Chen, S.-L., Eds., Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) What Happens When You Saw A Rubber Band Ball in Half? Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990) Airline Competition: Passenger Facility Charges Can Provide an Independent Source of Funding for Airport Expansion and Improvement Projects. (T-RCED-90-99).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
CampBell, P. K. (2012) Lenses of indigenous feminism: Digging up the roots of Western patriarchy in ‘Perma Red’ and ‘Monkey Beach’ (Doctoral dissertation), University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2016) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times: MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy Reviews
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc. Rev.
ISSN (print)0570-4928
ISSN (online)1520-569X

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