How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Litchinitser, N. M. (2012) Applied physics. Structured light meets structured matter. Science 337 (6098): 1054–1055.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dawson, T. M., and Dawson, V. L. (2003) Molecular pathways of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Science 302 (5646): 819–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, M. W., Spero, H. J., and Lea, D. W. (2004) Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Nature 428 (6979): 160–163.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pavlov, D. A., Bobrov, A. I., Malekhonova, N. V., Pirogov, A. V., and Nezhdanov, A. V. (2014) Self-assembled nanocrystals discovered in Chelyabinsk meteorite. Sci. Rep. 4: 4280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bays, D. H. (2011) A New History of Christianity in China. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Costenoble, S. R. (2016) Equivariant Ordinary Homology and Cohomology. Waner, S., Ed. Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Heggernes, P., van ’t Hof, P., Lévêque, B., Lokshtanov, D., and Paul, C. (2012) Contracting Graphs to Paths and Trees. In Parameterized and Exact Computation: 6th International Symposium, IPEC 2011, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 6-8, 2011. Revised Selected Papers, Marx, D., Rossmanith, P., Eds., Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Myth Of The ‘Missing Link’ In Evolution Does Science No Favors. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002) VA Information Technology: Progress Made, but Continued Management Attention Is Key to Achieving Results. (GAO-02-369T).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carroll, W. E. (2017) Leadership and emotional intelligence: Ability-based and mixed models of emotional intelligence as predictors of leadership performance across manager levels (Doctoral dissertation), Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017) Film Series. New York Times: C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy Reviews
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc. Rev.
ISSN (print)0570-4928
ISSN (online)1520-569X

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