How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Maho, Y. (2002) Nature and function. Nature 416 (6876): 21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leathers, M. L., and Olson, C. R. (2013) Response to comment on ‘In monkeys making value-based decisions, LIP neurons encode cue salience and not action value’. Science 340 (6131): 430.
A journal article with 3 authors
McNamara, J. M., Fawcett, T. W., and Houston, A. I. (2013) An adaptive response to uncertainty generates positive and negative contrast effects. Science 340 (6136): 1084–1086.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tu, D. C., Batten, M. L., Palczewski, K., and Van Gelder, R. N. (2004) Nonvisual photoreception in the chick iris. Science 306 (5693): 129–131.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitty, J., and Raftery, A. (2013) Essentials of Tortoise Medicine and Surgery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford.
An edited book
Loue, S., and Sajatovic, M. eds. (2009) Determinants of Minority Mental Health and Wellness. Springer: New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Hongjian, G. A. O., Chunlan, Y. A. N. G., Lei, Z. H. A. O., Haiming, A. I., Shuicai, W. U., Zhiggang, C. H. E. N. G., and Ping, L. I. A. N. G. (2010) Design and Implementation of Liver Hyperthermia Treatment Planning System. In World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/4 Image Processing, Biosignal Processing, Modelling and Simulation, Biomechanics, Dössel, O., Schlegel, W.C., Eds., Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 17–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy Reviews.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016) Farming Causes More Air Pollution Than All Other Human Sources Combined. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991) Job Training Partnership Act: Racial and Gender Disparities in Services. (T-HRD-91-42).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taaz, Z. (2017) Boiler automation and monitoring of temperature and steam flow using Simulink (Doctoral dissertation), California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2011) Feynman the Thinker. New York Times: BR19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy Reviews
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc. Rev.
ISSN (print)0570-4928
ISSN (online)1520-569X

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