How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Egger, A. E. (2012) IBI series winner. Engaging students in earthquakes via real-time data and decisions. Science 336 (6089): 1654–1655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hines, P. J., and Zahn, L. M. (2009) What’s bugging plants? Plant-microbe interactions. Introduction. Science 324 (5928): 741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou, J., Thompson, B., and Hess, R. F. (2013) A new form of rapid binocular plasticity in adult with amblyopia. Sci. Rep. 3: 2638.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, H.-L., Liao, Z.-M., Zhang, L., Yuan, W.-T., Wang, Y., Ma, X.-M., and Yu, D.-P. (2013) Reversible insulator-metal transition of LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ interface for nonvolatile memory. Sci. Rep. 3: 2870.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Likhtenshtein, G. (2012) Solar Energy Conversion. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Barafort, B., O’Connor, R. V., Poth, A., and Messnarz, R. eds. (2014) Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 21st European Conference, EuroSPI 2014, Luxembourg, June 25-27, 2014. Proceedings. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sachithanadam, M., and Joshi, S. C. (2016) Microstructural Analysis. In Silica Aerogel Composites: Novel Fabrication Methods, Joshi, S.C., Ed., Springer: Singapore, pp 37–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy Reviews.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016) Ancient Hot Spring On Mars May Contain Signs Of Past Life. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986) Deactivating Research Vessels: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Use of Private Ships. (RCED-86-133).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, D. K. (2009) Professional values: A study of education and experience in nursing students and nurses (Doctoral dissertation), Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017) Child Custody Fight May Sideline Azarenka. New York Times: B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy Reviews
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc. Rev.
ISSN (print)0570-4928
ISSN (online)1520-569X

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