How to format your references using the Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2002). Cell biology gets plugged in. Nature, 417(6892), 6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gautel, M., & Ehler, E. (2010). Cell biology. Gett’N-WASP stripes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6010), 1491–1492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hamilton, M. J., Walker, R. S., & Kesler, D. C. (2014). Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America. Scientific reports, 4, 4541.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Laughlin, G., Deming, D., Langton, J., Kasen, D., Vogt, S., Butler, P., et al. (2009). Rapid heating of the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet. Nature, 457(7229), 562–564.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attokaran, M. (2011). Natural Food Flavors and Colorants. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Peixoto, M. M., Pinto, A. A., & Rand, D. A. (Eds.). (2011). Dynamics, Games and Science II: DYNA 2008, in Honor of Maurício Peixoto and David Rand, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, September 8-12, 2008 (Vol. 2). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaviani, S., Tellambura, C., & Krzymień, W. A. (2007). On the Performance of Transmit Antenna Selection with OSTBC in Ricean MIMO Channels. In S. Pupolin (Ed.), Wireless Communications 2007 CNIT Thyrrenian Symposium (pp. 39–50). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 15). Seven Things To Keep In Mind If You’re Going To March For Science. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). FAA’s Voice Communications and Administrative Computer Systems (No. T-IMTEC-89-3). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaeffler, K. P. (2015). From Flag Officer to Corporate Leader: A Phenomenological Study of the Influence of Career Transition on Executive Leadership and Professional Identity (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, August 8). Disappearing Act: The Art and Fraud of Faking Your Own Death. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gautel and Ehler 2010; Gershon 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gautel and Ehler 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Laughlin et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spatial Analysis and Policy
AbbreviationAppl. Spat. Anal. Policy
ISSN (print)1874-463X
ISSN (online)1874-4621
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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