How to format your references using the Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sime, L. C. (2014). Climate. Greenland deglaciation puzzles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6201), 1116–1117.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gutierrez, M. P., & Lee, L. P. (2013). Engineering. Multiscale design and integration of sustainable building functions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6143), 247–248.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayr, G., Pohl, B., & Peters, D. S. (2005). A well-preserved Archaeopteryx specimen with theropod features. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5753), 1483–1486.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chu, L., Schmidt, H., Pu, J., Wang, S., Ozyilmaz, B., Takenobu, T., & Eda, G. (2014). Charge transport in ion-gated mono-, bi-, and trilayer MoS2 field effect transistors. Scientific reports, 4, 7293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joule, J. A., & Mills, K. (2012). Heterocyclic Chemistry at a Glance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Shukla, P. (2015). Computational Approaches in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for Effectual Bio-hydrogen Production. (M. V. K. Karthik, Ed.). New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer, B. (2012). Catawba Indians’ Adaptive Response to Colonialism. In R. J. Chacon & R. G. Mendoza (Eds.), The Ethics of Anthropology and Amerindian Research: Reporting on Environmental Degradation and Warfare (pp. 73–77). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, June 6). Astronaut Enters Inflatable ISS Habitat For The First Time. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). U.S.-Japan Cooperative Development: Progress on FS-X Program Enhances Japanese Aerospace Capabilities (No. NSIAD-95-145). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts, J. E. (2010). Process evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S. (2016, September 16). A Little Breathing Room in the Financial Aid Gantlet. New York Times, p. BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sime 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gutierrez and Lee 2013; Sime 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gutierrez and Lee 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spatial Analysis and Policy
AbbreviationAppl. Spat. Anal. Policy
ISSN (print)1874-463X
ISSN (online)1874-4621
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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