How to format your references using the Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Duve, C. (2005). The onset of selection. Nature, 433(7026), 581–582.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, A. I., & Foote, M. (2009). Epicontinental seas versus open-ocean settings: the kinetics of mass extinction and origination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5956), 1106–1109.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penner, J. E., Rotstayn, L. D., & Crowley, T. J. (2000). Indirect aerosol forcing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5491), 407a.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stanciu, S. G., Xu, S., Peng, Q., Yan, J., Stanciu, G. A., Welsch, R. E., et al. (2014). Experimenting liver fibrosis diagnostic by two photon excitation microscopy and Bag-of-Features image classification. Scientific reports, 4, 4636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, J. T. (1999). Methods of Geometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Puri, K. (2013). Earth System Modelling - Volume 1: Recent Developments and Projects. (R. Redler & R. Budich, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Brust, D., Hamann, A., & Osiewacz, H. D. (2009). Apoptosis in Fungal Development and Ageing. In T. Anke & D. Weber (Eds.), Physiology and Genetics: Selected Basic and Applied Aspects (pp. 63–78). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 6). Meat is a Complex Health Issue but a Simple Climate one: the World Needs to Eat Less of it. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Certain Food Aspects of the School Lunch Program in New York City (No. CED-77-89). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carver, J. R. (2009). CMO: Chief Marketing Officer or chief “marginalized” officer (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, December 13). Maker Agrees to Modify a Helmet That Was Decertified. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Duve 2005).
This sentence cites two references (de Duve 2005; Miller and Foote 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Foote 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Stanciu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spatial Analysis and Policy
AbbreviationAppl. Spat. Anal. Policy
ISSN (print)1874-463X
ISSN (online)1874-4621
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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