How to format your references using the Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenlof, K. H. (2003). Atmospheric science. How water enters the stratosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5651), 1691–1692.
A journal article with 2 authors
Braakman, I., & Otsu, M. (2008). Biochemistry. Cargo load reduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5888), 499–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, L., Song, K., & Hase, W. L. (2002). A SN2 reaction that avoids its deep potential energy minimum. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5569), 875–878.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yeung, N., Lin, Y.-W., Gao, Y.-G., Zhao, X., Russell, B. S., Lei, L., et al. (2009). Rational design of a structural and functional nitric oxide reductase. Nature, 462(7276), 1079–1082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simmendinger, H. (2013). HOAI 2013: Praxisleitfaden für Ingenieure und Architekten. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Jajodia, S., & Mazumdar, C. (Eds.). (2005). Information Systems Security: First International Conference, ICISS 2005, Kolkata, India, December 19-21, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3803). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Beldiceanu, N., Katriel, I., & Lorca, X. (2006). Undirected Forest Constraints. In J. C. Beck & B. M. Smith (Eds.), Integration of AI and OR Techniques in Constraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: Third International Conference, CPAIOR 2006, Cork, Ireland, May 31 - June 2, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 29–43). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, March 3). Amazon’s Jeff Bezos Wants Humans To Colonize The Moon With His Help. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Technology Development: New DOD Space Science and Technology Strategy Provides Basis for Optimizing Investments, but Future Versions Need to Be More Robust (No. GAO-05-155). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klooster, E. C.-R. (2010). Identifying differences in student traditionalities of remedial math students, adjusted for efficacy (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2008, May 18). Over the Years, It Feels Right at Home. New York Times, p. LI4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rosenlof 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Braakman and Otsu 2008; Rosenlof 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Braakman and Otsu 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Yeung et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spatial Analysis and Policy
AbbreviationAppl. Spat. Anal. Policy
ISSN (print)1874-463X
ISSN (online)1874-4621
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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