How to format your references using the Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson, D. (2001). Weaving a social web. Nature, 414(6864), 587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Piperno, D. R., & Sues, H.-D. (2005). Paleontology. Dinosaurs dined on grass. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5751), 1126–1128.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murray, B. J., Knopf, D. A., & Bertram, A. K. (2005). The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth’s atmosphere. Nature, 434(7030), 202–205.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Black, G. J., Campbell, D. B., Carter, L. M., & Ostro, S. J. (2004). Radar detection of Iapetus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5670), 553.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blicq, R. S., & Moretto, L. A. (2015). Writing Reports to Get Results. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mukherjee, S., Aarts, R. M., Roovers, R., Widdershoven, F., & Ouwerkerk, M. (Eds.). (2006). AmIware Hardware Technology Drivers of Ambient Intelligence (Vol. 5). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Flew, T. (2016). National Media Regulations in an Age of Convergent Media: Beyond Globalisation, Neo-liberalism and Internet Freedom Theories. In T. Flew, P. Iosifidis, & J. Steemers (Eds.), Global Media and National Policies: The Return of the State (pp. 75–91). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 6). Particle Accelerator Breakthrough Reduces Their Size By A Factor Of 100. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Embedded Computer Systems: Status of C-17 Software (No. T-IMTEC-93-2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Park, A. (2009). Borderland beyond: Korean migrants and the creation of a modern state boundary between Korea and Russia, 1860-1937 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, October 29). A Nazi Script Comes to Light. New York Times, p. C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson 2001; Piperno and Sues 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Piperno and Sues 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Black et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spatial Analysis and Policy
AbbreviationAppl. Spat. Anal. Policy
ISSN (print)1874-463X
ISSN (online)1874-4621
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

Other styles