How to format your references using the BMC Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lay T. Seismology: Why giant earthquakes keep catching us out. Nature. 2012;483:149–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bartek J, Lukas J. Cell biology. Balancing life-or-death decisions. Science. 2006;314:261–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Stebe KJ, Lewandowski E, Ghosh M. Materials science. Oriented assembly of metamaterials. Science. 2009;325:159–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hirsch C, Gauss R, Horn SC, Neuber O, Sommer T. The ubiquitylation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum. Nature. 2009;458:453–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schmidt RH, Rodrick GE. Food Safety Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Kazakov D, Smadja G, editors. Particle Physics and Cosmology: The Interface: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Particle Physics and Cosmology: The Interface Cargèse, France 4–16 August 2003. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fang AC, Cao J. Part-of-Speech Tags and ICE Text Classification. In: Cao J, editor. Text Genres and Registers: The Computation of Linguistic Features. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 71–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Proceedings.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Is Glass A Solid Or A Liquid? IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/chemistry/glass-solid-or-liquid/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Greater Emphasis on Information Resource Management Is Needed at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Morr R. Age Discrimination: Prejudice Suppression in the Selection Process. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move. New York Times. 2006;:14NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Proceedings
ISSN (print)1753-6561
Scope

Other styles