How to format your references using the BMC Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Landry CR. Cell biology. A cellular roadmap for the plant kingdom. Science. 2011;333:532–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jennings MD, Pavitt GD. eIF5 has GDI activity necessary for translational control by eIF2 phosphorylation. Nature. 2010;465:378–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chisari FV, Mason WS, Seeger C. Virology. Comment on “Specific and nonhepatotoxic degradation of nuclear hepatitis B virus cccDNA.” Science. 2014;344:1237.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Foster KR, Shaulsky G, Strassmann JE, Queller DC, Thompson CRL. Pleiotropy as a mechanism to stabilize cooperation. Nature. 2004;431:693–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Thomas CG. Greece. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Lieten GK. Child Street Life: An Inside View of Hazards and Expectations of Street Children in Peru. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mingo N, Stewart DA, Broido DA, Lindsay L, Li W. Ab Initio Thermal Transport. In: Shindé SL, Srivastava GP, editors. Length-Scale Dependent Phonon Interactions. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 137–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Proceedings.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Supermoon Tide Washes Bemused Octopus Into Miami Parking Garage. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Pell Grants for Prison Inmates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sutton DS. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatán Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. George RP. Interpretive Freedom. New York Times. 2012;:BR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Proceedings
ISSN (print)1753-6561

Other styles