How to format your references using the BMC Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Herrling P. Experiments in social responsibility. Nature. 2006;439:267–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Salters VJM, Dick HJB. Mineralogy of the mid-ocean-ridge basalt source from neodymium isotopic composition of abyssal peridotites. Nature. 2002;418:68–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Finnegan NJ, Schumer R, Finnegan S. A signature of transience in bedrock river incision rates over timescales of 10(4)-10(7) years. Nature. 2014;505:391–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yarbrough ML, Li Y, Kinch LN, Grishin NV, Ball HL, Orth K. AMPylation of Rho GTPases by Vibrio VopS disrupts effector binding and downstream signaling. Science. 2009;323:269–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hopkins BR. Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Tribastone M, Gilmore S, editors. Computer Performance Engineering: 9th European Workshop, EPEW 2012, Munich, Germany, July 30, 2012, and 28th UK Workshop, UKPEW 2012, Edinburgh, UK, July 2, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Michalak T, Engwerda J, Plasmans J, van Aarle B, Di Bartolomeo G. Models of Endogenous Coalition Formation Between Fiscal and Monetary Authorities in the Presence of a Monetary Union. In: Neck R, Richter C, Mooslechner P, editors. Quantitative Economic Policy: Essays in Honour of Andrew Hughes Hallett. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 103–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Proceedings.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Self-love in the animal kingdom. IFLScience. 2013. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/self-love-animal-kingdom/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Public Schools: Audit Confirms Reasonableness of Enrollment Count, but Report’s Presentation Is Unclear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Guiltinan E. Characterizing well connectivity in fractured bedrock using periodic hydraulic tests. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dominus I by S. ‘My Moves Speak for Themselves.’ New York Times. 2014;:MM10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Proceedings
ISSN (print)1753-6561
Scope

Other styles