How to format your references using the BMC Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Macilwain C. Change the cancer conversation. Nature. 2015;520:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hegde D, Mowery DC. Research funding. Politics and funding in the U.S. public biomedical R&D system. Science. 2008;322:1797–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hanada K-I, Yewdell JW, Yang JC. Immune recognition of a human renal cancer antigen through post-translational protein splicing. Nature. 2004;427:252–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Paz-Y-Miño C G, Bond AB, Kamil AC, Balda RP. Pinyon jays use transitive inference to predict social dominance. Nature. 2004;430:778–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Keedwell E, Narayanan A. Intelligent Bioinformatics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Koh JHL. Design Thinking for Education: Conceptions and Applications in Teaching and Learning. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mozyrska D, Wyrwas M. Fractional Linear Equations with Discrete Operators of Positive Order. In: Latawiec KJ, Łukaniszyn M, Stanisławski R, editors. Advances in Modelling and Control of Non-integer-Order Systems: 6th Conference on Non-integer Order Calculus and Its Applications, 2014 Opole, Poland. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Proceedings.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Endangered Rhinos in South Africa Will Be Fitted With Spy Cameras In Their Horns. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Wireless Radio Services--Compatibility with Enhanced 911 Emergency Calling Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. De la Rosa-Carrillo EL. On the language of Internet Memes. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. At the Nation’s Table: Buffalo;Bottling the Secret Of the Wings. New York Times. 1996;:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Proceedings
ISSN (print)1753-6561

Other styles