How to format your references using the Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2005. French lessons. Nature 435(7043): 849.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirsch, E., and Novelli, F. 2014. Cancer: natural-born killers unleashed. Nature 510(7505): 342–343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamada, Y., Kawabe, T., and Miyazaki, M. 2013. Pattern randomness aftereffect. Sci. Rep. 3: 2906.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schuur, E.A.G., Vogel, J.G., Crummer, K.G., Lee, H., Sickman, J.O., and Osterkamp, T.E. 2009. The effect of permafrost thaw on old carbon release and net carbon exchange from tundra. Nature 459(7246): 556–559.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBain, G.D. 2012. Theory of Lift. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bahadur, B., Sujatha, M., and Carels, N. (Editors). 2013. Jatropha, Challenges for a New Energy Crop: Volume 2: Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rao, K.R., and Paranjpe, A.C. 2016. Mind–Body Complex. In Psychology in the Indian Tradition. Edited by A.C. Paranjpe. Springer India, New Delhi. pp. 95–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, August 7. Sandstorm Uncovers New Nazca Lines. IFLScience. [accessed 30 October 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Health Information Technology: HHS Is Pursuing Efforts to Advance Nationwide Implementation, but Has Not Yet Completed a National Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obeng-Dompreh, S. 2008. The impact of servicemembers’ learning styles and computer anxiety levels on computer -mediated learning. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartman, S. 2014, August 11. A New Life for Refugees, and the City They Adopted. New York Times: A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2005, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hirsch and Novelli 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schuur et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
AbbreviationAppl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab.
ISSN (print)1715-5312
ISSN (online)1715-5320
ScopePhysiology
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Physiology (medical)
Nutrition and Dietetics

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