How to format your references using the Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Begun, D.R. 2004. Anthropology. The earliest hominins--is less more? Science 303(5663): 1478–1480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Christensen, S.T., and Ott, C.M. 2007. Cell signaling. A ciliary signaling switch. Science 317(5836): 330–331.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heywood, K.J., Naveira Garabato, A.C., and Stevens, D.P. 2002. High mixing rates in the abyssal Southern Ocean. Nature 415(6875): 1011–1014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuan, X., Arkonac, D.E., Chao, P.-H.G., and Vunjak-Novakovic, G. 2014. Electrical stimulation enhances cell migration and integrative repair in the meniscus. Sci. Rep. 4: 3674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Promislow, S.D. 2010. Fundamentals of Actuarial Mathematics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chao, H.-K., Chen, S.-T., and Millstein, R.L. (Editors). 2013. Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Stober, T., and Hansmann, U. 2010. Considerations on Teaming and Leadership. In Agile Software Development: Best Practices for Large Software Development Projects. Edited by U. Hansmann. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, July 16. Non-Human DNA Discovered During Biopsy Of Ötzi The Iceman. IFLScience. Available fromötzi-iceman/ [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Hospital Quality Data: HHS Should Specify Steps and Time Frame for Using Information Technology to Collect and Submit Data. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gu, J. 2010. Measurement, modeling, and synthesis of time-varying appearance of natural phenomena. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vaissié, C. 2017, April 14. Can Putin influence the French election? New York Times: 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Begun 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Begun 2004; Christensen and Ott 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Christensen and Ott 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
AbbreviationAppl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab.
ISSN (print)1715-5312
ISSN (online)1715-5320
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Physiology (medical)
Nutrition and Dietetics

Other styles