How to format your references using the Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lal, R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304(5677): 1623–1627.
A journal article with 2 authors
Loring, J.F., and Campbell, C. 2006. Science and law. Intellectual property and human embryonic stem cell research. Science 311(5768): 1716–1717.
A journal article with 3 authors
Veizer, J., Godderis, Y., and François, L.M. 2000. Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon. Nature 408(6813): 698–701.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chang, S., Johnston, R.J., Jr, Frøkjaer-Jensen, C., Lockery, S., and Hobert, O. 2004. MicroRNAs act sequentially and asymmetrically to control chemosensory laterality in the nematode. Nature 430(7001): 785–789.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, D.W. 2014. Economic Theory and the Ancient Mediterranean. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Filipe, J., Cordeiro, J., and Cardoso, J. (Editors). 2008. Enterprise Information Systems: 9th International Conference, ICEIS 2007, Funchal, Madeira, June 12-16, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pan, M., and Czarnik, C. 2016. Image Detectors for Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM). In Controlled Atmosphere Transmission Electron Microscopy: Principles and Practice. Edited by T.W. Hansen and J.B. Wagner. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 143–164.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, June 26. Nearby Exoplanet Is Best Candidate For Supporting Life. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. National Airspace System: Current Efforts and Proposed Changes to Improve Performance of FAA’s Air Traffic Control System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao, Q. 2013. East Asian backpacker tourists’ motivations for participating in backpacking. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2012, January 1. At the Gym Site, Food For Fitness Lovers. New York Times: NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lal 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lal 2004; Loring and Campbell 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Loring and Campbell 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
AbbreviationAppl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab.
ISSN (print)1715-5312
ISSN (online)1715-5320
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Physiology (medical)
Nutrition and Dietetics

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