How to format your references using the Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWitt, N. 2008. Regenerative medicine. Nature 453(7193): 301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dijk, D.-J., and Skeldon, A.C. 2015. Biological rhythms: Human sleep before the industrial era. Nature 527(7577): 176–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Renault, L., Guibert, B., and Cherfils, J. 2003. Structural snapshots of the mechanism and inhibition of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Nature 426(6966): 525–530.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Landskron, K., Hatton, B.D., Perovic, D.D., and Ozin, G.A. 2003. Periodic mesoporous organosilicas containing interconnected [Si(CH2)]3 rings. Science 302(5643): 266–269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weston, P. 2006. Bioinformatics Software Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Rahman, S., Primiero, G., and Marion, M. (Editors). 2012. The Realism-Antirealism Debate in the Age of Alternative Logics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Fritzsche, B., Kirstein, B., and Mädler, C. 2012. On a Special Parametrization of Matricial α-Stieltjes One-sided Non-negative Definite Sequences. In Interpolation, Schur Functions and Moment Problems II. Edited by D. Alpay and B. Kirstein. Springer, Basel. pp. 211–250.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.

Blog post
Evans, K. 2017, January 17. NASA Releases Incredible Images To Show How Earth Has Changed In Just 30 Years. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Telecommunications: FCC Should Evaluate the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Lifeline Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mark, M. 2017. A peer mentorship program for youth transitioning out of foster care: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. 2017, September 6. Where Nobody Knows Your Name. New York Times: D13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWitt 2008).
This sentence cites two references (DeWitt 2008; Dijk and Skeldon 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dijk and Skeldon 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Landskron et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
AbbreviationAppl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab.
ISSN (print)1715-5312
ISSN (online)1715-5320
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Physiology (medical)
Nutrition and Dietetics

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