How to format your references using the Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morell, V. 2014. When the bat sings. Science 344(6190): 1334–1337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Green, D.R., and Kroemer, G. 2004. The pathophysiology of mitochondrial cell death. Science 305(5684): 626–629.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, M., Yu, X., and Ahlberg, P.E. 2001. A primitive sarcopterygian fish with an eyestalk. Nature 410(6824): 81–84.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Georgiou, G., Tyagi, H.K., Mulder, P., Bauhuis, G.J., Schermer, J.J., and Rivas, J.G. 2014. Photo-generated THz antennas. Sci. Rep. 4: 3584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lad, B.K., Shrivastava, D., and Kulkarni, M.S. 2016. Machine Tool Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bothmann, F. 2006. A Guidebook for Riverside Regeneration: Artery - Transforming Riversides for the Future. Edited ByR. Kerndlmaier, A.I. Koffeman, K. Mandel, and S. Wallbank. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Morrison, S.A. 2011. The Gift. In Go Where You Belong: Male Teachers as Cultural Workers in the Lives of Children, Families, and Communities. Edited by L.W. Watson and C.S. Woods. SensePublishers, Rotterdam. pp. 33–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, June 30. Liberia Announces New Ebola Death Since Country declared Free of the Disease. IFLScience. [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Space Operations: Testing of NASA’s Technical and Management Information System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stachowiak, D. 2011. How executive coaches use the results of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to develop their coachees. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2005, December 5. Arts Briefly; Film Museum Closes in Moscow. New York Times: E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morell 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Green and Kroemer 2004; Morell 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Green and Kroemer 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Georgiou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
AbbreviationAppl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab.
ISSN (print)1715-5312
ISSN (online)1715-5320
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Physiology (medical)
Nutrition and Dietetics

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