How to format your references using the Applied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Du Pasquier, L. Immunology. Insects diversify one molecule to serve two systems. Science 2005, 309, 1826–1827.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katija, K.; Dabiri, J.O. A viscosity-enhanced mechanism for biogenic ocean mixing. Nature 2009, 460, 624–626.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, H.; Nebel, C.E.; Shikata, S. Isotopic homojunction band engineering from diamond. Science 2009, 324, 1425–1428.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
DeMattos, R.B.; Bales, K.R.; Cummins, D.J.; Paul, S.M.; Holtzman, D.M. Brain to plasma amyloid-beta efflux: a measure of brain amyloid burden in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Science 2002, 295, 2264–2267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Altman, M.C. Kant and Applied Ethics; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781118114162.
An edited book
New Frontiers in Mining Complex Patterns: 4th International Workshop, NFMCP 2015, Held in Conjunction with ECML-PKDD 2015, Porto, Portugal, September 7, 2015, Revised Selected Papers; Ceci, M., Loglisci, C., Manco, G., Masciari, E., Ras, Z.W., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9607; ISBN 9783319393148.
A chapter in an edited book
Barnabas, R.V.; Duerr, A.C.; Wasserheit, J.N. HIV/AIDS Vaccine Research. In Public Health Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Low and Middle Income Countries: Epidemiology, Prevention and Care; Celentano, D.D., Beyrer, C., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2009; pp. 85–114 ISBN 9780387727103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. Yawns Are Contagious In Budgies Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: INS Needs to Strengthen Its Investment Management Capability; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weisblatt, B.H. The numinous on Russian soil: A depth psychological interpretation of religious experience in “The Brothers Karamazov.” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strauss, B. Knicks’ Rose May Be in Court, Not on It, When Team Begins Preseason. New York Times 2016, B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Sciences
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3417

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