How to format your references using the Applied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Li, W.K.W. Macroecological Patterns of Phytoplankton in the Northwestern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 2002, 419, 154–157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blander, J.M.; Medzhitov, R. Toll-Dependent Selection of Microbial Antigens for Presentation by Dendritic Cells. Nature 2006, 440, 808–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brisbin, I.L., Jr; Austad, S.; Jacobson, S.K. Canine Detectives: The Nose Knows-or Does It? Science 2000, 290, 1093b.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Qin, S.; Lei, W.; Liu, D.; Chen, Y. In-Situ and Tunable Nitrogen-Doping of MoS2 Nanosheets. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brower, M.C. Wind Resource Assessment; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118249864.
An edited book
Mak, G. Spring Recipes; Long, J., Rubio, D., Eds.; Second Edition.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2010; ISBN 9781430224990.
A chapter in an edited book
Laurence, V.; Rousset-Jablonski, C. Contraception and Cancer Treatment in Young Persons. In Reproductive Health and Cancer in Adolescents and Young Adults; Quinn, G.P., Vadaparampil, S.T., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; pp. 41–60 ISBN 9789400724914.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Experts Call For Apollo-Like Commitment To Tackle Climate Change Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation and the Environment: Impact of Aviation Noise on Communities Presents Challenges for Airport Operations and Future Growth of the National Airspace System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Takusi, G.S. A Quantitative Analysis of the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Turnover Factors of Relational Database Support Professionals. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B. Law Firm Stocks Ranks With Ex-Federal Officials. New York Times 2017, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Sciences
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3417

Other styles