How to format your references using the Applied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wyatt, T. High-Energy Colliders and the Rise of the Standard Model. Nature 2007, 448, 274–280.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mellor, N.; Bishopp, A. Plant Science. The Innermost Secrets of Root Development. Science 2014, 345, 622–623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Inaba, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Kondo, S. Pigment Pattern Formation by Contact-Dependent Depolarization. Science 2012, 335, 677.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pasupathy, A.N.; Pushp, A.; Gomes, K.K.; Parker, C.V.; Wen, J.; Xu, Z.; Gu, G.; Ono, S.; Ando, Y.; Yazdani, A. Electronic Origin of the Inhomogeneous Pairing Interaction in the High-Tc Superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. Science 2008, 320, 196–201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lipiansky, E. Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118414552.
An edited book
Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and Practice in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management; Dyck, V.A., Hendrichs, J., Robinson, A.S., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2005; ISBN 9781402040504.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghafari, N.; Gurfinkel, A.; Trefler, R. Verification of Parameterized Systems with Combinations of Abstract Domains. In Formal Techniques for Distributed Systems: Joint 11th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference FMOODS 2009 and 29th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference FORTE 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings; Lee, D., Lopes, A., Poetzsch-Heffter, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 57–72 ISBN 9783642021374.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Sciences.

Blog post
Taub, B. Enough Is Enough - It’s Time For An Evidence-Based Approach To Drug Policy Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Environmental Satellites: Strategy Needed to Sustain Critical Climate and Space Weather Measurements; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caverly, R.S. Marketing Masculinity: Male Identity, Boy Culture, and the Boy Scouts of America 1900–1940. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Demoted To “Not Free.” New York Times 2004, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Sciences
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3417

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