How to format your references using the Applied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markó, I.E. Natural product synthesis. The art of total synthesis. Science 2001, 294, 1842–1843.
A journal article with 2 authors
Woolf, C.J.; Bloechlinger, S. Neuroscience. It takes more than two to Nogo. Science 2002, 297, 1132–1134.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonasio, R.; Tu, S.; Reinberg, D. Molecular signals of epigenetic states. Science 2010, 330, 612–616.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Porco, C.C.; Thomas, P.C.; Weiss, J.W.; Richardson, D.C. Saturn’s small inner satellites: clues to their origins. Science 2007, 318, 1602–1607.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Powsner, R.A.; Palmer, M.R.; Powsner, E.R. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118473481.
An edited book
Wilson, K.C. Slurry Transport Using Centrifugal Pumps; Addie, G.R., Sellgren, A., Clift, R., Eds.; Third Edition.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; ISBN 9780387232621.
A chapter in an edited book
Lambert, L.; Keyomarsi, K. Cell Cycle Deregulation in Breast Cancer: Insurmountable Chemoresistance or Achilles’ Heel? In Breast Cancer Chemosensitivity; Yu, D., Hung, M.-C., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer: New York, NY, 2007; pp. 52–69 ISBN 9780387740379.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. Which Country Drinks The Most Alcohol? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Traffic Control: FAA’s Modernization Efforts--Past, Present, and Future; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wenger, M.C. Free-choice family learning experiences at informal astronomy observing events. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. U.S. Soccer’s Home And the World’s New Destination. New York Times 2011, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Sciences
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3417

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