How to format your references using the Applied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Stafford, N. Spy in the Sky. Nature 2007, 445, 808–809.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Sutherland, W.J.; Burgman, M. Policy Advice: Use Experts Wisely. Nature 2015, 526, 317–318.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Rohde, D.L.T.; Olson, S.; Chang, J.T. Modelling the Recent Common Ancestry of All Living Humans. Nature 2004, 431, 562–566.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Settembre, C.; Di Malta, C.; Polito, V.A.; Garcia Arencibia, M.; Vetrini, F.; Erdin, S.; Erdin, S.U.; Huynh, T.; Medina, D.; Colella, P.; et al. TFEB Links Autophagy to Lysosomal Biogenesis. Science 2011, 332, 1429–1433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Smaini, L. RF Analog Impairments Modeling for Communication Systems Simulation; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118438046.
An edited book
1.
Computer Security - ESORICS 2014: 19th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Wroclaw, Poland, September 7-11, 2014. Proceedings, Part II; Kutyłowski, M., Vaidya, J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 8713; ISBN 9783319112114.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Nikolenko, S. SVD-LDA: Topic Modeling for Full-Text Recommender Systems. In Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Its Applications: 14th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI 2015, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, October 25-31, 2015, Proceedings, Part II; Pichardo Lagunas, O., Herrera Alcántara, O., Arroyo Figueroa, G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 67–79 ISBN 9783319271002.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Sciences.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti, A. What’s The Chance Of Life On Pluto? Available online: https://www.iflscience.com/space/what-s-the-chance-of-life-on-pluto/ (accessed on 30 October 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office ADP Acquisition: SEC Needs To Resolve Key Issues Before Proceeding With Its EDGAR System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Astorga, J. Mentoring Program for Emancipated Foster Youth: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Billard, M. Exit Hammet, Enter Holmes. New York Times 2010, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Sciences
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3417
Scope

Other styles