How to format your references using the Applied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Downie, J.A. Plant Science. Infectious Heresy. Science 2007, 316, 1296–1297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tseng, C.-K.; Cheng, S.-C. Both Catalytic Steps of Nuclear Pre-MRNA Splicing Are Reversible. Science 2008, 320, 1782–1784.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schneider, T.; Bischoff, T.; Haug, G.H. Migrations and Dynamics of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Nature 2014, 513, 45–53.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smakowska-Luzan, E.; Mott, G.A.; Parys, K.; Stegmann, M.; Howton, T.C.; Layeghifard, M.; Neuhold, J.; Lehner, A.; Kong, J.; Grünwald, K.; et al. Publisher Correction: An Extracellular Network of Arabidopsis Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinases. Nature 2018, 561, E8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Botsai, E.; Kaneshiro, C.; Cuccia, P.; Pajo, H. The Architect’s Guide to Preventing Water Infiltration; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118259900.
An edited book
Decolonizing Global Citizenship Education; Abdi, A.A., Shultz, L., Pillay, T., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2015; ISBN 9789463002776.
A chapter in an edited book
Grothaus, M.; Sadun, E. Interacting with Your IPad. In Taking Your iPad to the Max, iOS 5 Edition; Sadun, E., Ed.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2012; pp. 77–118 ISBN 9781430240686.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S. First Snakes Had Cute Ankles And Toes Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Debarment for Violation of Davis-Bacon Act; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada Marroquin, E.M. Using Support Groups to Help Kinship Caregivers Transition Youth to Safe and Productive Community Living: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Generations Aching to Connect. New York Times 2017, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Sciences
AbbreviationAppl. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3417

Other styles