How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kato, T. (2002). Self-assembly of phase-segregated liquid crystal structures. Science 295, 2414–2418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jaffe, A. B., and Hall, A. (2003). Cell biology. Smurfing at the leading edge. Science 302, 1690–1691.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Dyck, D., Jinschek, J. R., and Chen, F.-R. (2012). “Big Bang” tomography as a new route to atomic-resolution electron tomography. Nature 486, 243–246.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiao, Y., Patolsky, F., Katz, E., Hainfeld, J. F., and Willner, I. (2003). “Plugging into Enzymes”: nanowiring of redox enzymes by a gold nanoparticle. Science 299, 1877–1881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz, D. (2010). The Future of Finance. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Meroni, G. ed. (2012). TRIM/RBCC Proteins. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alexander, T. D. (2016). “The Black Messiah and Black Suffering,” in Albert Cleage Jr. and the Black Madonna and Child, ed. J. E. Clark (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US), 77–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017). Outstanding Drone Footage Captures Blue Whales Feeding. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Financial Problems in the Stafford Student Loan Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bozorgchami, B. (2017). Time and Bandwidth Efficiency in Transmission of Telemedicine and In-Hospital Patient Data.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013). Wanted: Snow. Cold. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kato, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kato, 2002; Jaffe and Hall, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jaffe and Hall, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiao et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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