How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mueller, K. (2013). Inflammation. Inflammation’s yin-yang. Introduction. Science 339, 155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prather, M. J., and Blake, D. R. (2012). F. Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012). Nature 484, 168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, G., Liu, C., and Fan, S. (2013). Directly measuring of thermal pulse transfer in one-dimensional highly aligned carbon nanotubes. Sci. Rep. 3, 2549.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hunt, D. E., David, L. A., Gevers, D., Preheim, S. P., Alm, E. J., and Polz, M. F. (2008). Resource partitioning and sympatric differentiation among closely related bacterioplankton. Science 320, 1081–1085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoe, I. (2006). Applied Regression Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
London, J. (2012). Using Technology to Sell: Tactics to Ratchet Up Results. , ed. M. Lucas Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Bryniarski, L., and Klocek, M. (2013). “Quality of Life in Patients After Coronary Interventional Treatment,” in Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Patients, eds. K. Kawecka-Jaszcz, M. Klocek, B. Tobiasz-Adamczyk, and C. J. Bulpitt (Milano: Springer), 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Study Reveals Complexity Of Shark Sensing. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Cooperative Program Needs Greater Oversight to Ensure Goals Are Met. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dalbey, S. B. (2017). Celebrity Endorsements and Voting Intentions: The Role of Liking and Preference for Consistency.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016). Unlikely Contributors Give Mets Hope. New York Times, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mueller, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Prather and Blake, 2012; Mueller, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prather and Blake, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hunt et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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