How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lowe, J. B. (2005). Cell biology. Does Notch take the sweet road to success? Science 307, 1570–1572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang, Y. C., and Gao, J. (2014). Strain-induced photoconductivity in thin films of Co doped amorphous carbon. Sci. Rep. 4, 6738.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mabe, S., Nagamune, T., and Kawahara, M. (2014). Detecting protein-protein interactions based on kinase-mediated growth induction of mammalian cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 6127.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Noh, B., Bandyopadhyay, A., Peer, W. A., Spalding, E. P., and Murphy, A. S. (2003). Enhanced gravi- and phototropism in plant mdr mutants mislocalizing the auxin efflux protein PIN1. Nature 423, 999–1002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechni, Laackmann, K., Balthaus, H., Braach, O., Friebel, W.-D., Hettler, A., et al. (2015). Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 2015. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bischi, G. I., Panchuk, A., and Radi, D. eds. (2016). Qualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems, Tools and Applications for Economic Modelling: Lectures Given at the COST Training School on New Economic Complex Geography at Urbino, Italy, 17-19 September 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bramanti, A., and Fratesi, U. (2009). “The Dynamics of an ‘Innovation Driven’ Territorial System,” in Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions: The Role of Internal and External Connections Advances in Spatial Science., eds. U. Fratesi and L. Senn (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 59–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). Watch Live As Solar Impulse Ends Its Sun-Powered Flight Around The World. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). Internet Management: Limited Progress on Privatization Project Makes Outcome Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gossett, J. M. (2009). Autobiographical insights into the spiritual psychologies of Jung and Bion.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2016). Unseen Ingredients: Cash, and Lots of Time. New York Times, WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lowe, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Jiang and Gao, 2014; Lowe, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jiang and Gao, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Noh et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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