How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bains, W. (2012). Comment on “Orthographic processing in baboons (Papio papio).” Science 337, 1173; author reply 1173.
A journal article with 2 authors
Canup, R. M., and Ward, W. R. (2006). A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets. Nature 441, 834–839.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wei, Z.-W., Wang, B.-H., and Han, X.-P. (2013). Renormalization and small-world model of fractal quantum repeater networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 1222.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rius, J., Guma, M., Schachtrup, C., Akassoglou, K., Zinkernagel, A. S., Nizet, V., et al. (2008). NF-kappaB links innate immunity to the hypoxic response through transcriptional regulation of HIF-1alpha. Nature 453, 807–811.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sokhanvar, S., Dargahi, J., Najarian, S., and Arbatani, S. (2012). Tactile Sensing and Displays. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Reusch, B. ed. (2005). Computational Intelligence, Theory and Applications: International Conference 8th Fuzzy Days in Dortmund, Germany, Sept. 29–Oct. 01, 2004 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Brändas, E. J. (2013). “Some Biochemical Reflections on Information and Communication,” in Advances in Quantum Methods and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics., eds. M. Hotokka, E. J. Brändas, J. Maruani, and G. Delgado-Barrio (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 75–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016). Fight, Flight Or … Faint? Why Some People Pass Out When They See Blood Or Feel Pain. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Traffic Safety: NHTSA’s Improved Oversight Could Identify Opportunities to Strengthen Management and Safety in Some States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laffitte, L. (2012). A Comparison of Pull-Out and Co-Teaching Models on the Reading Performance of Third through Fifth Grade Elementary Students with a Diagnosed Specific Learning Disability in Reading.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A. L. (2017). Murder Charge for Officer In Bronx Woman’s Death. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bains, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Canup and Ward, 2006; Bains, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Canup and Ward, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Rius et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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