How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisher, C. B. (2006). Public health. Clinical trials results databases: unanswered questions. Science 311, 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deane, G. B., and Stokes, M. D. (2002). Scale dependence of bubble creation mechanisms in breaking waves. Nature 418, 839–844.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, Y., Nakano, M., and Ikeda, T. (2003). Photomechanics: directed bending of a polymer film by light. Nature 425, 145.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Aubert, M., Setiawan, P., Oktaviana, A. A., Brumm, A., Sulistyarto, P. H., Saptomo, E. W., et al. (2018). Palaeolithic cave art in Borneo. Nature.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salles, M. (2015). Decision-Making and the Information System. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Calisesi, Y., Bonnet, R.-M., Gray, L., Langen, J., and Lockwood, M. eds. (2007). Solar Variability and Planetary Climates. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, R. (2016). “Radical Inclusion in the Umbrella Movement: Interstitial Integrity and the New Pentecostal Rebirth of Hong Kong,” in Theological Reflections on the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement, eds. J. K. H. Tse and J. Y. Tan (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US), 87–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015). Solution To Voyager 1 Magnetic Field Mystery Suggests It Is Not Quite In Interstellar Space. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Commercial Aviation: Survey of Small Community Air Service Grantees and Applicants, an E-supplement to GAO-06-21. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spotts, S. L. (2017). A Comparative Analysis of Missouri Elementary School Arts Curriculums.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017). The Layover. New York Times, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fisher, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Deane and Stokes, 2002; Fisher, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deane and Stokes, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Aubert et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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