How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ormerod, P. (2012). Social networks can spread the Olympic effect. Nature 489, 337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maillard, I., and Saltiel, A. R. (2015). Metabolism: Inflammation keeps old mice healthy. Nature 528, 44–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gavriil, F. P., Kaspi, V. M., and Woods, P. M. (2002). Magnetar-like X-ray bursts from an anomalous X-ray pulsar. Nature 419, 142–144.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Franken, J. H., Herps, M., Swagten, H. J. M., and Koopmans, B. (2014). Tunable chiral spin texture in magnetic domain-walls. Sci. Rep. 4, 5248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duckert, G. H. (2010). Practical Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ulusoy, Ö., Tansel, A. U., and Arkun, E. eds. (2015). Recommendation and Search in Social Networks. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi, H., He, M., and Qin, Z. (2006). “Authenticated and Communication Efficient Group Key Agreement for Clustered Ad Hoc Networks,” in Cryptology and Network Security: 5th International Conference, CANS 2006, Suzhou, China, December 8-10, 2006. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. D. Pointcheval, Y. Mu, and K. Chen (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Bats Cock Their Heads In An Adorable Way To Help Them Hunt Better. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Proposed Relocation of the Offices of the Social Security Administrator and Staff. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bartenhagen, J. (2012). Transitioning organizations for sustainability: Exploring the intersection of sustainability, worldview, and organization development.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jeffries, M. P. (2017). The Rage in Harlem, and Beyond. New York Times, BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ormerod, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ormerod, 2012; Maillard and Saltiel, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maillard and Saltiel, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Franken et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep and Chronobiology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles