How to format your references using the Antiviral Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antiviral Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boger, D.L., 2015. ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. When sugar is not so sweet. Science 350, 275–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zheng, J., Jia, Z., 2010. Structure of the bifunctional isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase. Nature 465, 961–965.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovács, Á.M., Téglás, E., Endress, A.D., 2010. The social sense: susceptibility to others’ beliefs in human infants and adults. Science 330, 1830–1834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Charest, M.G., Lerner, C.D., Brubaker, J.D., Siegel, D.R., Myers, A.G., 2005. A convergent enantioselective route to structurally diverse 6-deoxytetracycline antibiotics. Science 308, 395–398.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leuf, B., 2006. The Semantic Web. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Dréo, J., 2006. Metaheuristics for Hard Optimization: Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search, Evolutionary and Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colonies,… Methods and Case Studies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fujita, T., Ichikawa, J., 2014. Syntheses, Properties, and Applications of Fluorinated Isoquinolines, in: Nenajdenko, V. (Ed.), Fluorine in Heterocyclic Chemistry Volume 2: 6-Membered Heterocycles. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 181–210.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antiviral Research.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Scientists Create A Mind-Controlled Turtle [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Air Traffic Control: Immature Software Acquisition Processes Increase FAA System Acquisition Risks (No. AIMD-97-47). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez, G., 2017. Creating Integrated, Inquiry Science Lessons Based on Early Childhood Science Activities (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Nakom. New York Times C11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boger, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boger, 2015; Zheng and Jia, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zheng and Jia, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Charest et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntiviral Research
AbbreviationAntiviral Res.
ISSN (print)0166-3542

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