How to format your references using the Antiviral Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antiviral Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meijer, D., 2009. Neuroscience. Went fishing, caught a snake. Science 325, 1353–1354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melosh, H.J., Collins, G.S., 2005. Planetary science: Meteor Crater formed by low-velocity impact. Nature 434, 157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim, S.H., Duffy, T.S., Shen, G., 2001. Stability and structure of MgSiO3 perovskite to 2300-kilometer depth in Earth’s mantle. Science 293, 2437–2440.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boutros, M., Kiger, A.A., Armknecht, S., Kerr, K., Hild, M., Koch, B., Haas, S.A., Paro, R., Perrimon, N., Heidelberg Fly Array Consortium, 2004. Genome-wide RNAi analysis of growth and viability in Drosophila cells. Science 303, 832–835.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLean, D., 2012. Understanding Aerodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Vilar, R. (Ed.), 2008. Recognition of Anions, Structure and Bonding. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiang, Q., Yin, R., Xu, J., Deng, X., 2009. Modeling the Driving Forces of the Land Use and Land Cover Changes Along the Upper Yangtze River, in: Yin, R. (Ed.), An Integrated Assessment of China’s Ecological Restoration Programs. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antiviral Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Raise A Cup – Of Coffee; WHO No Longer Says It Can Cause Cancer [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: DOD Is Addressing Knowledge Gaps in Its New Acquisition Strategy [Reissued on August 13, 2012] (No. GAO-12-822). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lai, J.-P., 2008. Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten (PTEN) As A Molecular Target in Lung Epithelial Wound Repair and Protection (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. Puerto Rico’s Financial Woes Revive Calls for Independence. New York Times A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meijer, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Meijer, 2009; Melosh and Collins, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melosh and Collins, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Boutros et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntiviral Research
AbbreviationAntiviral Res.
ISSN (print)0166-3542

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