How to format your references using the Antiviral Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antiviral Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt, D., 2013. Science & SciLifeLab Prize. Evolution of vertebrate transcriptional regulator binding. Science 342, 1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown, J.W., Braver, T.S., 2005. Learned predictions of error likelihood in the anterior cingulate cortex. Science 307, 1118–1121.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, S., Shima, T., Hou, Z., 2014. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride. Nature 512, 413–415.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Britton-Davidian, J., Catalan, J., da Graça Ramalhinho, M., Ganem, G., Auffray, J.C., Capela, R., Biscoito, M., Searle, J.B., da Luz Mathias, M., 2000. Rapid chromosomal evolution in island mice. Nature 403, 158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwarz, D.R., 2014. Reading the European Novel to 1900. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Koslowski, P. (Ed.), 2005. The Discovery of Historicity in German Idealism and Historism, Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Krause, J., Langhirt, C., Sterff, A., Pehlke, B., Döring, M., 2010. External Data Access, in: Langhirt, C., Sterff, A., Pehlke, B., Döring, M. (Eds.), SharePoint 2010 as a Development Platform. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 255–294.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antiviral Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. ‘Climate Hacking’ Would Be Easy – That Doesn’t Mean We Should Do It [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Student Attrition at the Five Federal Service Academies. Enclosure B: (No. FPCD-76-12B). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khayyat, A.M., 2015. Use of near field communication technology to prevent consumption and usage of expired products (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. Hell Gate Bridge, a Rail Span and a Fine Place to Hide From Zombies, Turns 100. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Brown and Braver, 2005; Schmidt, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brown and Braver, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Britton-Davidian et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntiviral Research
AbbreviationAntiviral Res.
ISSN (print)0166-3542

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