How to format your references using the Antiviral Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antiviral Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fujishima, A., 2003. Comment on “efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2” (I). Science 301, 1673; discussion 1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunet, J., Liston, A., 2001. Polyploidy and gender dimorphism. Science 291, 1441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melcák, I., Hoelz, A., Blobel, G., 2007. Structure of Nup58/45 suggests flexible nuclear pore diameter by intermolecular sliding. Science 315, 1729–1732.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Merkel, S., Kubo, A., Miyagi, L., Speziale, S., Duffy, T.S., Mao, H.-K., Wenk, H.-R., 2006. Plastic deformation of MgGeO3 post-perovskite at lower mantle pressures. Science 311, 644–646.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goodhew, S., 2016. Sustainable Construction Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Rogin, F., 2010. Debugging at the Electronic System Level. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Harts, W., Berkeley, A., Filippa, L., Ross, J., Sofianos, G., Tabb, L., Wright, M., 2008. Emergence of New Competition: Alternative Sources of Liquidity, in: Colaninno, A., Byrne, J.A., Schwartz, R.A. (Eds.), Competition in a Consolidating Environment. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antiviral Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. 22q11.2 Deletion: The Most Common Syndrome You Have Never Heard Of [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Special Education: Additional Federal Actions Could Help Address Unique Challenges of Educating Children in Nursing Homes (No. GAO-14-585). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahlhut, C.W., 2012. Aerodynamic design optimization of proprotors for convertible-rotor concepts (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Haberman, M., 2017. An Overseas Trip Comes at a Crucial Time, but Trump Is a Reluctant Traveler. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fujishima, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brunet and Liston, 2001; Fujishima, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brunet and Liston, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Merkel et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntiviral Research
AbbreviationAntiviral Res.
ISSN (print)0166-3542

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