How to format your references using the Antiviral Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antiviral Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D., 2003. Ministers back gene-crop advisers. Nature 421, 775.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rus, D., Tolley, M.T., 2015. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots. Nature 521, 467–475.
A journal article with 3 authors
Togashi, T., Sasaki, H., Yoshimura, J., 2014. A geometrical approach explains Lake Ball (Marimo) formations in the green alga, Aegagropila linnaei. Sci. Rep. 4, 3761.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Srour, M., Rivière, J.-B., Pham, J.M.T., Dubé, M.-P., Girard, S., Morin, S., Dion, P.A., Asselin, G., Rochefort, D., Hince, P., Diab, S., Sharafaddinzadeh, N., Chouinard, S., Théoret, H., Charron, F., Rouleau, G.A., 2010. Mutations in DCC cause congenital mirror movements. Science 328, 592.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Godwin, W., 2013. International Construction Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Ramnath, S., Dathan, B. (Eds.), 2011. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Frey, M.D., 2006. Low kV Scanning Electron Microscopy, in: Zhou, W., Wang, Z.L. (Eds.), Scanning Microscopy for Nanotechnology: Techniques and Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 101–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antiviral Research.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Caffeine Can Make Up For Lost Sleep, But Only For Two Nights [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Status of the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 Project (No. PSAD-77-103). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roediger, E., 2015. Relaxation Skills Training for Elementary Aged Children (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2003; Rus and Tolley, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rus and Tolley, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Srour et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntiviral Research
AbbreviationAntiviral Res.
ISSN (print)0166-3542

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