How to format your references using the Antiviral Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antiviral Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill, G.E., 2004. Ecology. A head start for some redstarts. Science 306, 2201–2202.
A journal article with 2 authors
Calsbeek, R., Cox, R.M., 2010. Experimentally assessing the relative importance of predation and competition as agents of selection. Nature 465, 613–616.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helbing, D., Farkas, I., Vicsek, T., 2000. Simulating dynamical features of escape panic. Nature 407, 487–490.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lachner, M., O’Carroll, D., Rea, S., Mechtler, K., Jenuwein, T., 2001. Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins. Nature 410, 116–120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hobkirk, J.A., Gill, D.S., Jones, S.P., Hemmings, K.W., Bassi, G.S., O’Donnell, A.L., Goodman, J.R., 2010. Hypodontia. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Zhan, J., Han, R., Zicari, R.V. (Eds.), 2016. Big Data Benchmarks, Performance Optimization, and Emerging Hardware: 6th Workshop, BPOE 2015, Kohala, HI, USA, August 31 - September 4, 2015. Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Fagan, B., Brandenburg, R., Crothers, L., 2013. An Aboriginal Pathway to Learning: My Story, in: Wilson, J.Z. (Ed.), Pedagogies for the Future: Leading Quality Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antiviral Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Watch This Guy Simulate How “Human Skin” Reacts To Being Electrocuted [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Army Networks: Size and Scope of Modernization Investment Merit Increased Oversight (No. GAO-13-179). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cole, K.W., 2010. Principal investigator and department administrator perceptions of services provided by Offices of Research Administration at research universities (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2016. A Family Revolving Around a Disability. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hill, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Calsbeek and Cox, 2010; Hill, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Calsbeek and Cox, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Lachner et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntiviral Research
AbbreviationAntiviral Res.
ISSN (print)0166-3542

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