How to format your references using the Applied Mathematics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Mathematics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O. Penrose, An asymmetric world, Nature. 438 (2005) 919.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.L. Whitaker, J. Edwards, Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings, Science. 329 (2010) 406.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.-K. Kang, S.J. Kim, H.J. Kim, Fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors via pressure-induced nucleation, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6858.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y.A. Pashkin, T. Yamamoto, O. Astafiev, Y. Nakamura, D.V. Averin, J.S. Tsai, Quantum oscillations in two coupled charge qubits, Nature. 421 (2003) 823–826.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Continuous Monitoring for Hazardous Material Releases, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
S. Wadkar, Pro Apache Hadoop, Second Edition, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A.L. Samaha, S.E. Bloom, L.J. Koehler, Preference Assessments for Clinical Decision Making, in: N.N. Singh (Ed.), Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 99–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Mathematics Letters.

Blog post
T. Hale, Harbor Seal Pup Dies After Being Put In Tote Bag, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Opportunities for Improving Computer Use in the Bureau of the Mint, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Choubey, Quantitative Assessment of Fgfr1 Expression in Neurons and Glia of the Developing Mouse Brain, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
K. Crow, Spit and Polish For an Old Soldier, New York Times. (2002) 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Mathematics Letters
AbbreviationAppl. Math. Lett.
ISSN (print)0893-9659
ScopeApplied Mathematics

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