How to format your references using the Heliyon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heliyon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.J.C. Caron, Eppendorf. Brains don’t play dice--or do they?, Science. 342 (2013) 574.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Di Paolo, P. De Camilli, Phosphoinositides in cell regulation and membrane dynamics, Nature. 443 (2006) 651–657.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.A. Downs, N.F. Lowndes, S.P. Jackson, A role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone H2A in DNA repair, Nature. 408 (2000) 1001–1004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Wallrapp, S.J. Riesenfeld, P.R. Burkett, R.-E.E. Abdulnour, J. Nyman, D. Dionne, M. Hofree, M.S. Cuoco, C. Rodman, D. Farouq, B.J. Haas, T.L. Tickle, J.J. Trombetta, P. Baral, C.S.N. Klose, T. Mahlakõiv, D. Artis, O. Rozenblatt-Rosen, I.M. Chiu, B.D. Levy, M.S. Kowalczyk, A. Regev, V.K. Kuchroo, Erratum: The neuropeptide NMU amplifies ILC2-driven allergic lung inflammation, Nature. 551 (2017) 658.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Machner, Einführung in die Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2005.
An edited book
L.T. Gomes, Fuzzy Differential Equations in Various Approaches, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Askenazy, J. Forth, Work Organisation and Human Resource Management: Does Context Matter?, in: T. Amossé, A. Bryson, J. Forth, H. Petit (Eds.), Comparative Workplace Employment Relations: An Analysis of Practice in Britain and France, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 141–177.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heliyon.

Blog post
T. Hale, 110-Year-Old Lobster Is Saved From A Restaurant, Dies Shortly After, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Judicial Cases Reviewed for Awards of Damages, Attorneys’ Fees, and Nonmonetary Remedies in Special Education Lawsuits Brought Under Public Law 94-142, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.M. Haradon, The ecological context of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in Africa, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Thrush, K. Kelly, M. Haberman, Widespread Cuts in Trump Budget Bypass Military, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHeliyon
ISSN (print)2405-8440

Other styles