How to format your references using the Speculum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Speculum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A journal article with 2 authors
A journal article with 3 authors
A journal article with 4 or more authors

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
An edited book
A chapter in an edited book


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference Wilhelm Krull, “Hubert Markl (1938-2015),” Nature 518/7538 (February 12, 2015): 168..
This sentence cites two references Wilhelm Krull, “Hubert Markl (1938-2015),” Nature 518/7538 (February 12, 2015): 168; Esteban Freidin and Alex Kacelnik, “Rational Choice, Context Dependence, and the Value of Information in European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris),” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334/6058 (November 18, 2011): 1000–1002..

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: Esteban Freidin and Alex Kacelnik, “Rational Choice, Context Dependence, and the Value of Information in European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris),” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334/6058 (November 18, 2011): 1000–1002.
  • Three authors: Rosa Micol-Ponce, Verónica Aguilera, and María Rosa Ponce, “A Genetic Screen for Suppressors of a Hypomorphic Allele of Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE1,” Scientific Reports 4 (July 2, 2014): 5533.
  • 4 or more authors: Joydeep Bagchi et al., “Giant Ringlike Radio Structures around Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376,” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314/5800 (November 3, 2006): 791–94.

About the journal

Full journal titleSpeculum
ISSN (print)0038-7134
ISSN (online)2040-8072

Other styles