How to format your references using the Applied Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graddol, D. (2004). The future of language. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5662), 1329–1331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Read, S. M., & Bacic, T. (2002). Plant biology. Prime time for cellulose. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5552), 59–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bania, T. M., Rood, R. T., & Balser, D. S. (2002). The cosmological density of baryons from observations of 3He+ in the Milky Way. Nature, 415(6867), 54–57.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Saito, F., Hirayasu, K., Satoh, T., Wang, C. W., Lusingu, J., Arimori, T., Shida, K., Palacpac, N. M. Q., Itagaki, S., Iwanaga, S., Takashima, E., Tsuboi, T., Kohyama, M., Suenaga, T., Colonna, M., Takagi, J., Lavstsen, T., Horii, T., & Arase, H. (2017). Immune evasion of Plasmodium falciparum by RIFIN via inhibitory receptors. Nature, 552(7683), 101–105.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen, S., Pedersen-Bjergaard, S., & Rasmussen, K. (2011). Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Natarajan, R. (Ed.). (2014). Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 10th International Conference, ICDCIT 2014, Bhubaneswar, India, February 6-9, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8337). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mughal, M., & Soldin, M. (2016). The Impact of the Menstrual Cycle on Intraoperative and Postoperative Bleeding in Abdominoplasty Patients. In A. Di Giuseppe & M. A. Shiffman (Eds.), Aesthetic Plastic Surgery of the Abdomen (pp. 47–50). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Geography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 18). This Insect Spits Poop-Smelling Chemicals into Predators’ Mouths. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). HUD Information Technology: More Work Remains to Implement Necessary Management Controls (GAO-12-580T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gauen, K. E. (2009). The impact of the Instructional Practices Inventory at an Illinois middle school [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haughney, C., & Carr, D. (2013, August 5). Boston Globe Is Another Metro Paper Gone Local. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Graddol, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Graddol, 2004; Read & Bacic, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Read & Bacic, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Bania et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Saito et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Geography
AbbreviationAppl. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0143-6228
Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
General Environmental Science
Geography, Planning and Development

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