How to format your references using the Applied Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sydnes, L. K. (2013). Policy: Update the Chemical Weapons Convention. Nature, 496(7443), 25–26.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, B. R. G., & Sen, G. C. (2003). Immunology. A viral on/off switch for interferon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5622), 1100–1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferain, I., Colinge, C. A., & Colinge, J.-P. (2011). Multigate transistors as the future of classical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Nature, 479(7373), 310–316.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Scheffer, M., Bascompte, J., Brock, W. A., Brovkin, V., Carpenter, S. R., Dakos, V., … Sugihara, G. (2009). Early-warning signals for critical transitions. Nature, 461(7260), 53–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mather, P. M., & Koch, M. (2011). Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensed Images. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Thompson, B., & Cohen, M. J. (Eds.). (2012). The Impact of Climate Change and Bioenergy on Nutrition. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hwang, Y.-S., & Kearney, P. (2015). Study Two: Mindfulness Intervention for Children. In P. Kearney (Ed.), A Mindfulness Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: New Directions in Research and Practice (pp. 93–125). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Geography.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, January 14). Rhinos Escape Caught On Video. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Air Traffic Control: Improved Cost Information Needed to Make Billion Dollar Modernization Investment Decisions (No. AIMD-97-20). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bao, J. (2010). Design enhancements in repetitive and interative learning control (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., & Ember, S. (2016, October 17). Facing the Music. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sydnes, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sydnes, 2013; Williams & Sen, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams & Sen, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Ferain, Colinge, & Colinge, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Scheffer et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Geography
AbbreviationAppl. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0143-6228
Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
General Environmental Science
Geography, Planning and Development

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