How to format your references using the Applied Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm, V. (2012). Astronomy. Embers of the distant past. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6111), 1160–1161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, S. A., & Donoghue, M. J. (2008). Rates of molecular evolution are linked to life history in flowering plants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5898), 86–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zwieniecki, M. A., Melcher, P. J., & Michele Holbrook, N. M. (2001). Hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic resistance in plants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5506), 1059–1062.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hanlon, R. T., Naud, M.-J., Shaw, P. W., & Havenhand, J. N. (2005). Behavioural ecology: transient sexual mimicry leads to fertilization. Nature, 433(7023), 212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner, H. (2005). Managing Complex Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barman, N. K. (2016). Coastal Morphodynamics: Integrated Spatial Modeling on the Deltaic Balasore Coast, India (S. Chatterjee & A. K. Paul, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Phillips, R. S. (2011). Semi-Groups of Contraction Operators. In L. Amerio (Ed.), Equazioni differenziali astratte (pp. 171–221). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Geography.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, October 5). Teenage Brains Are Wired For Learning. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Telecommunications: Competitive Impact of Restructuring the International Satellite Organizations (RCED-96-204). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chalmers, T. D. (2009). The social context of advertising: Authenticity, social identity, and reflected appraisals [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Duerden, J. (2017, March 3). Trendy Shanghai District Has a Team With Glitter of Its Own. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bromm, 2012; Smith & Donoghue, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith & Donoghue, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Zwieniecki et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hanlon et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Geography
AbbreviationAppl. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0143-6228
Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
General Environmental Science
Geography, Planning and Development

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