How to format your references using the Applied Computing and Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Computing and Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Huisman, Comment on “Patterns of diversity in marine phytoplankton,” Science. 329 (2010) 512; author reply 512.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Green, S.C. Fry, Vitamin C degradation in plant cells via enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-O-oxalyl-L-threonate, Nature. 433 (2005) 83–87.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.P. Flower, M. Gribble, A.R. Ridley, Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird, Science. 344 (2014) 513–516.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Gregoryanz, L.F. Lundegaard, M.I. McMahon, C. Guillaume, R.J. Nelmes, M. Mezouar, Structural diversity of sodium, Science. 320 (2008) 1054–1057.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.Y. Rhee, Wireless Mobile Internet Security, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
F. Ibrahim, J. Usman, M.S. Mohktar, M.Y. Ahmad, eds., International Conference for Innovation in Biomedical Engineering and Life Sciences: ICIBEL2015, 6-8 December 2015, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 1st ed. 2016, Springer, Singapore, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Jellinger, F. Krismer, Aetiopathogenesis, in: G.K. Wenning, A. Fanciulli (Eds.), Multiple System Atrophy, Springer, Vienna, 2014: pp. 57–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Computing and Informatics.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Why Vultures Don’t Get Food Poisoning, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Planning for Education Standards, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.D. Hendricks, Teaching teachers: A study of teacher educators’ perceptions of the effect of meeting mandated NCATE standards, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Branch, Finding a Home in the Sand, New York Times. (2016) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Computing and Informatics
AbbreviationAppl. Comput. Inform.
ISSN (print)2210-8327

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