How to format your references using the Applied Computing and Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Computing and Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O. Seehausen, Evolution: Beauty varies with the light, Nature. 521 (2015) 34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Maillard, W.S. Pear, Immunology. Keeping a tight leash on Notch, Science. 316 (2007) 840–842.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.C. Lee, Y. Hu, M.W. Ribbe, Vanadium nitrogenase reduces CO, Science. 329 (2010) 642.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.S. Novoselov, A.K. Geim, S.V. Dubonos, E.W. Hill, I.V. Grigorieva, Subatomic movements of a domain wall in the Peierls potential, Nature. 426 (2003) 812–816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Schorn, B. Taylor, NMR Spectroscopy: Data Acquisition, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2004.
An edited book
C.N. De Cecco, MDCT and MRI of the Heart, Springer, Milano, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Wolfsberg, W.A. Van Hook, P. Paneth, Isotope Effects on Equilibrium Constants of Chemical Reactions; Transition State Theory of Isotope Effects, in: W.A. Hook, P. Paneth, L.P.N. Rebelo (Eds.), Isotope Effects: In the Chemical, Geological, and Bio Sciences, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 77–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Computing and Informatics.

Blog post
J. Davis, Glacier National Park Will Soon Have No Glaciers, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Need for More Effective Audits of Federal Grants and Contracts Administered by Institutions of Higher Education, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Tchen, An evaluation of the effectiveness of mandatory reporting of health care associated infection, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.B. Stewart, New Chief Portrays A Kinder, Gentler Uber, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Computing and Informatics
AbbreviationAppl. Comput. Inform.
ISSN (print)2210-8327

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