How to format your references using the The Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ainsworth C. Immunology: A many layered thing. Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):S52-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kinnamon SC, Reynolds SD. Cell biology. Using taste to clear the air(ways). Science. 2009 Aug 28;325(5944):1081–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sowers T, Alley RB, Jubenville J. Ice core records of atmospheric N2O covering the last 106,000 years. Science. 2003 Aug 15;301(5635):945–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Craig NJ, Taylor JM, Lester EA, Marcus CM, Hanson MP, Gossard AC. Tunable nonlocal spin control in a coupled-quantum dot system. Science. 2004 Apr 23;304(5670):565–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott DW. Color Atlas of Farm Animal Dermatology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Pillay D, Naicker I, Pithouse-Morgan K, editors. Academic Autoethnographies: Inside Teaching in Higher Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016. XII, 200 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Eldib H, Wang C, Schaumont P. SMT-Based Verification of Software Countermeasures against Side-Channel Attacks. In: Ábrahám E, Havelund K, editors. Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: 20th International Conference, TACAS 2014, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2014, Grenoble, France, April 5-13, 2014 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 62–77. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Surgeon.

Blog post
Carpineti A. What’s Inside A Red Giant? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Recovery Act Education Programs: Survey of School Districts’ Uses of Funds (GAO-11-885SP, September 2011), an E-supplement to GAO-11-804. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Sep. Report No.: GAO-11-885SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kott TM. Measurements of correlated two-dimensional electrons in the lowest Landau level on silicon(111) [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Beyoncé Cancels Coachella Performances. New York Times. 2017 Feb 23;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Surgeon
ISSN (print)1479-666X

Other styles