How to format your references using the The Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Nature. 2005 Feb 3;433(7025):554.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trimble SW, Crosson P. LAND USE: U.S. Soil Erosion Rates--Myth and Reality. Science. 2000 Jul 14;289(5477):248–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takeuchi H, Nakatsuji N, Suemori H. Endodermal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to insulin-producing cells in 3D culture. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 27;4:4488.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wardle DA, Hörnberg G, Zackrisson O, Kalela-Brundin M, Coomes DA. Long-term effects of wildfire on ecosystem properties across an island area gradient. Science. 2003 May 9;300(5621):972–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wong KD. Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Kaminsky W, editor. Polyolefins: 50 years after Ziegler and Natta II: Polyolefins by Metallocenes and Other Single-Site Catalysts. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. VIII, 366 p. 60 illus., 26 illus. in color. (Advances in Polymer Science; vol. 258).
A chapter in an edited book
Velarde MG, Makarov VA, Castellanos NP, Song YL, Lombardo D. Mathematical Approach to Sensory Motor Control and Memory. In: Arena P, Patanè L, editors. Spatial Temporal Patterns for Action-Oriented Perception in Roving Robots. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 219–68. (Cognitive Systems Monographs).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Surgeon.

Blog post
Fang J. Large Animals Suffer The Highest Trade-Driven Extinction Risk [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Additional Actions Needed in Ongoing Efforts to Improve 800-Number Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Aug. Report No.: GAO-05-735.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emerson JD. The Jambalaya That is My Brain [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. On the Stage, Aim for Special, but Not for Safe. New York Times. 2016 Nov 20;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Surgeon
ISSN (print)1479-666X

Other styles