How to format your references using the The Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Pain E. The class of 2005. France: a knot mathematician, with a twist. Science. 2005 Oct 21;310(5747):520.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Roberts RG, Sutikna T. Michael John Morwood (1950-2013). Nature. 2013 Aug 22;500(7463):401.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kuhlen M, Madau P, Silk J. Exploring dark matter with Milky Way substructure. Science. 2009 Aug 21;325(5943):970–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Miyamichi K, Amat F, Moussavi F, Wang C, Wickersham I, Wall NR, et al. Cortical representations of olfactory input by trans-synaptic tracing. Nature. 2011 Apr 14;472(7342):191–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
American Institute of Timber Constr. Timber Construction Manual. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Londral AR, Encarnação P, Rovira JLP, editors. Neurotechnology, Electronics, and Informatics: Revised Selected Papers from Neurotechnix 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. X, 110 p. 38 illus., 34 illus. in color. (Springer Series in Computational Neuroscience; vol. 13).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bulling N, Ghosh S, Verbrugge R. Reaching Your Goals without Spilling the Beans: Boolean Secrecy Games. In: Boella G, Elkind E, Savarimuthu BTR, Dignum F, Purvis MK, editors. PRIMA 2013: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 16th International Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 1-6, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 37–53. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Surgeon.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. A Rope Test Could Save Us From Monkey Diseases. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Department of Energy: Procedures Lacking to Protect Computerized Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: AIMD-95-118.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wilson RA. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing and Detection of Zinc in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltammerty on a Bismuth Film Electrode [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gorman J. Up for Anyting: The Common Swift, Ever in the Air. New York Times. 2016 Oct 27;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Surgeon
AbbreviationSurgeon
ISSN (print)1479-666X
ScopeSurgery

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