How to format your references using the The Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sammonds PR. Planetary science. Creep and flow on the icy moons of the outer planets. Science. 2006 Mar 3;311(5765):1250–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsuoka T, Shimizu K. Direct observation of a pressure-induced metal-to-semiconductor transition in lithium. Nature. 2009 Mar 12;458(7235):186–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doncaster CP, Pound GE, Cox SJ. The ecological cost of sex. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):281–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li H-C, Hsieh F-J, Chen C-P, Chang M-Y, Hsieh PCH, Chen C-C, et al. The hemocompatibility of oxidized diamond nanocrystals for biomedical applications. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 25;3:3044.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee YS. Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Duque G, Watanabe K, editors. Osteoporosis Research: Animal Models. London: Springer; 2011. XIX, 196 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Altman E, Avrachenkov K, Barakat C, Chandrayana K. A Multilevel Approach for the Modelling of Large TCP/IP Networks. In: Ince AN, Bragg A, editors. Recent Advances in Modeling and Simulation Tools for Communication Networks and Services. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 69–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Surgeon.

Blog post
Andrew D. Dolphins Spotted Riding Whales Off The Coast Of Hawaii [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Auto Safety: Status of NHTSA’s Redesign of Its Crashworthiness Data System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Mar. Report No.: GAO-15-334.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nambiar VR. A Grounded Theory Study on Business Excellence Models in the United Arab Emirates [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Working to Restore Help for AIDS Patients. New York Times. 2008 May 4;LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Surgeon
ISSN (print)1479-666X

Other styles