How to format your references using the National Medical Journal of China citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Medical Journal of China. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwartzberg PL. Immunology. Tampering with the immune system. Science. 2001 Jul 13;293(5528):228–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wayland B, Fu X. Chemistry. Building molecules with carbon monoxide reductive coupling. Science. 2006 Feb 10;311(5762):790–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rosu S, Libuda DE, Villeneuve AM. Robust crossover assurance and regulated interhomolog access maintain meiotic crossover number. Science. 2011 Dec 2;334(6060):1286–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shimamura T, Shiroishi M, Weyand S, Tsujimoto H, Winter G, Katritch V, et al. Structure of the human histamine H1 receptor complex with doxepin. Nature. 2011 Jun 22;475(7354):65–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chong YY. Investment Risk Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Kusuoka S, Yamazaki A, editors. Advances in Mathematical Economics. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2006. X, 482 p. (Advances in Mathematical Economics; vol. 8).
A chapter in an edited book
Frank DJ, Miki H. Analysis of Oxide Traps in Nanoscale MOSFETs using Random Telegraph Noise. In: Grasser T, editor. Bias Temperature Instability for Devices and Circuits. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 111–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Medical Journal of China.

Blog post
Fang J. Bizarre Hourglass-Shaped Fossils Belonged to Our Distant Cousins. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reasons for Ending Financial Support to the Dimmitt Independent School District Follow Through Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Nov. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekstrom JE. Factors influencing retention in a residential treatment program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. European Court Is Urged to Punish Hungary and Slovakia Over Refugees. New York Times. 2017 Jul 26;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Medical Journal of China
ISSN (print)0376-2491

Other styles