How to format your references using the National Medical Journal of China citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Medical Journal of China. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nathan C. Antibiotics at the crossroads. Nature. 2004 Oct 21;431(7011):899–902.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brent R, Bruck J. 2020 computing: can computers help to explain biology? Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):416–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Min S-K, Zhang X, Zwiers F. Human-induced Arctic moistening. Science. 2008 Apr 25;320(5875):518–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kanemaki M, Sanchez-Diaz A, Gambus A, Labib K. Functional proteomic identification of DNA replication proteins by induced proteolysis in vivo. Nature. 2003 Jun 12;423(6941):720–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collings S. Interpretation and Application of UK GAAP. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Sannella D. Foundations of Algebraic Specification and Formal Software Development. Tarlecki A, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XVI, 584 p. (Monographs in Theoretical Computer Science. An EATCS Series).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang C, Xia C, Wang H, Li X. On the Spatial-temporal Reachability of DTNs. In: Su J, Zhao B, Sun Z, Wang X, Wang F, Xu K, editors. Frontiers in Internet Technologies: Second CCF Internet Conference of China, ICoC 2013, Zhangjiajie, China, July 10, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 40–9. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Medical Journal of China.

Blog post
Fang J. The Moon Gets Broadband Wireless Connection [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Importation Into the U.S. of Automobiles That Do Not Conform With Emission Requirements]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Jul. Report No.: B-217842.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowetski DB. Manipulation of DNA topology using an artificial DNA-looping protein [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Job Bias Case Turns on Filing Right Form. New York Times. 2007 Nov 7;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Medical Journal of China
ISSN (print)0376-2491

Other styles