How to format your references using the National Medical Journal of China citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for National Medical Journal of China. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pauly D. Obituary: Ransom Aldrich Myers (1952-2007). Nature. 2007 May 10;447(7141):160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuda A, Osuka A. Fully conjugated porphyrin tapes with electronic absorption bands that reach into infrared. Science. 2001 Jul 6;293(5527):79–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frumkin A, Shimron A, Rosenbaum J. Radiometric dating of the Siloam Tunnel, Jerusalem. Nature. 2003 Sep 11;425(6954):169–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Furnes H, de Wit M, Staudigel H, Rosing M, Muehlenbachs K. A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite. Science. 2007 Mar 23;315(5819):1704–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spiegel R. Psychopharmacology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Santarelli E, editor. Entrepreneurship, Growth, and Innovation: The Dynamics of Firms and Industries. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. XX, 285 p. (International Studies in Entrepreneurship; vol. 12).
A chapter in an edited book
Dahlke C, Bork H-R. Soil Erosion and Soil Organic Carbon Storage on the Chinese Loess Plateau. In: Lal R, Lorenz K, Hüttl RF, Schneider BU, von Braun J, editors. Recarbonization of the Biosphere: Ecosystems and the Global Carbon Cycle. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 83–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for National Medical Journal of China.

Blog post
Andrew E. Stars With Planets On Strange Orbits: What’s Going On? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Law Enforcement Education Program Is in Serious Financial Disarray. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Jun. Report No.: FGMSD-80-46.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams CA. Impact of water management and agronomic practices on the performance of insecticide seed treatments against rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, in Mississippi rice [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Refuses Case Challenging Group’s Designation as Terrorists. New York Times. 2007 Jan 9;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNational Medical Journal of China
ISSN (print)0376-2491

Other styles