How to format your references using the Antonie van Leeuwenhoek citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain E (2007) Science careers. European programs offer translational training. Science 317:968–969
A journal article with 2 authors
Guigó R, Valcárcel J (2015) RNA. Prescribing splicing. Science 347:124–125
A journal article with 3 authors
Mooney H, Cropper A, Reid W (2005) Confronting the human dilemma. Nature 434:561–562
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Crook R, Prance J, Thomas KJ, et al (2006) Conductance quantization at a half-integer plateau in a symmetric GaAs quantum wire. Science 312:1359–1362

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loriaux DL (2016) A Biographical History of Endocrinology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Schomburg D, Schomburg I, Chang A (eds) (2010) Class 4–6 Lyases, Isomerases, Ligases: EC 4–6, Second Edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Paulhamus B, Ebaugh A, Boylls CC, et al (2012) Crowdsourced Cyber Defense: Lessons from a Large-Scale, Game-Based Approach to Threat Identification on a Live Network. In: Yang SJ, Greenberg AM, Endsley M (eds) Social Computing, Behavioral - Cultural Modeling and Prediction: 5th International Conference, SBP 2012, College Park, MD, USA, April 3-5, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 35–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) World’s Oldest Blood Cells Preserved in Ötzi the Iceman. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Army ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brecese JA (2012) Out of Our Depth: Hyper-Extensionality and the Return of Three-Dimensional Media. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J (2017) Australia Through American Eyes. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pain 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Pain 2007; Guigó and Valcárcel 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guigó and Valcárcel 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Crook et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntonie van Leeuwenhoek
AbbreviationAntonie Van Leeuwenhoek
ISSN (print)0003-6072
ISSN (online)1572-9699
ScopeMolecular Biology
General Medicine

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