How to format your references using the Cancer Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Dolgin, Cancer vaccines: Material breach, Nature. 504 (2013) S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.J. Young, C.E. Barrett, Neuroscience. Can oxytocin treat autism?, Science. 347 (2015) 825–826.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.E. Irwin, S. Bensch, T.D. Price, Speciation in a ring, Nature. 409 (2001) 333–337.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.L. Edwards, R. Brough, C.J. Lord, R. Natrajan, R. Vatcheva, D.A. Levine, J. Boyd, J.S. Reis-Filho, A. Ashworth, Resistance to therapy caused by intragenic deletion in BRCA2, Nature. 451 (2008) 1111–1115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.L. Klepinger, Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
M. Thangarajan, ed., Groundwater: Resource Evaluation, Augmentation, Contamination, Restoration, Modeling and Management, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Armony, Immigration Policies and Integration Models in Canada: Conflicting Approaches and Converging Trends, in: J. Domínguez-Mujica (Ed.), Global Change and Human Mobility, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 73–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Epidemiology.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Science In Crisis: From The Sugar Scam To Brexit, Our Faith In Experts Is Fading, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Johnson Space Center Procurement: Controls Over Payments to Contractors Should Be Strengthened, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.D. Mullican, Multiple Intelligences in the Text: Examining the Presence of Multiple Intelligences Tasks in the Annotated Teacher’s Editions of Four High School United States History Textbooks, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, The Supreme Court and the Politics of Fear, New York Times. (2015) SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Epidemiology
AbbreviationCancer Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1877-7821
ScopeCancer Research

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