How to format your references using the Cancer Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Q. Schiermeier, Clouded vision, Nature. 422 (2003) 356–357.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.A. Emini, W.C. Koff, AIDS/HIV. Developing an AIDS vaccine: need, uncertainty, hope, Science. 304 (2004) 1913–1914.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Charrier, N. Mathevon, P. Jouventin, Mother’s voice recognition by seal pups, Nature. 412 (2001) 873.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Karlsson, B. Rebmann, P.S. Lienemann, N. Sprossmann, M. Ehrbar, G. Radziwill, W. Weber, Pharmacologically controlled protein switch for ON-OFF regulation of growth factor activity, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Baher, Signal Processing and Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
D. Aram, O. Korat, eds., Literacy Development and Enhancement Across Orthographies and Cultures, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Ponnuramu, L. Tamilselvan, Encryption for Massive Data Storage in Cloud, in: L.C. Jain, H.S. Behera, J.K. Mandal, D.P. Mohapatra (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Data Mining - Volume 2: Proceedings of the International Conference on CIDM, 20-21 December 2014, Springer India, New Delhi, 2015: pp. 27–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Epidemiology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Gecko-Inspired Climbing Paddles Allow A Man To Climb A Glass Wall, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on EPA Authority to Exempt Clean-Fuel Vehicles from Transportation Control Measures], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.C. Poland, New cluster-based routing and multi-channel MAC protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Chira, Strange Moors, New York Times. (2013) BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Epidemiology
AbbreviationCancer Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1877-7821
ScopeCancer Research

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