How to format your references using the Antarctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antarctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilmore, G. 2004. Astronomy. The short spectacular life of a superstar. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304, 1915–1916.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khajetoorians, A.A. & Wiebe, J. 2014. Physics. Hitting the limit of magnetic anisotropy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344, 976–977.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mo, Y., Turner, K.T. & Szlufarska, I. 2009. Friction laws at the nanoscale. Nature, 457, 1116–1119.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, T., Zhang, Y., Cai, J.W. & Pan, H.Y. 2014. Thermally robust Mo/CoFeB/MgO trilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Scientific reports, 4, 5895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cortada, J.W. 2014. The Essential Manager. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gill, J. 2016. A Girl’s Education: Schooling and the Formation of Gender, Identities and Future Visions. Esson, K. & Yuen, R., eds. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, XXIV, 212 p. 18 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Ulrich Hoppe, H. 2009. The Disappearing Computer: Consequences for Educational Technology? In Dillenbourg, P., Huang, J. & Cherubini, M., eds. Interactive Artifacts and Furniture Supporting Collaborative Work and Learning. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1–17.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antarctic Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016. Incredible MRI Images Show What An Opera Singer Looks Like On The Inside While Singing. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Telecommunications: Preliminary Information on Media Ownership (GAO-08-330R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kilpatrick, R.F. 2010. A World Less Paved. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. 2016. Walking Dead Creator Is Ending a Comic. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilmore 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gilmore 2004, Khajetoorians & Wiebe 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khajetoorians & Wiebe 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntarctic Science
AbbreviationAntarct. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-1020
ISSN (online)1365-2079
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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