How to format your references using the Antarctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antarctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. 2013. Chronobiology: stepping out of time. Nature, 497, S10-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiatpongsan, S. & Sipp, D. 2009. Medicine. Monitoring and regulating offshore stem cell clinics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323, 1564–1565.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lai, Y.-T., Cascio, D. & Yeates, T.O. 2012. Structure of a 16-nm cage designed by using protein oligomers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336, 1129.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Brashares, J.S., Arcese, P., Sam, M.K., Coppolillo, P.B., Sinclair, A.R.E. & Balmford, A. 2004. Bushmeat hunting, wildlife declines, and fish supply in West Africa. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306, 1180–1183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando, A., Worrall, S.T. & Ekmekcioǧlu, E. 2013. 3DTV. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gelpi, R.J., Boveris, A. & Poderoso, J.J. eds. 2016. Biochemistry of Oxidative Stress: Physiopathology and Clinical Aspects. Cham: Springer International Publishing, XI, 454 p. 74 illus., 47 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Vieritz, H., Ullrich, C., Isaksson, E., Schmitz, H.-C., von der Heiden, B., Borau, K., Shen, R., Palmér, M., Lind, T. & Laaksoharju, M. 2015. Case Study 1: Using Widget Bundles for Formal Learning in Higher Education. In Kroop, S., Mikroyannidis, A. & Wolpers, M., eds. Responsive Open Learning Environments: Outcomes of Research from the ROLE Project. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 79–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antarctic Science.

Blog post
Evans, K. 2016. What Your Mindless Daily Habits Reveal About You According To Science. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Tax Systems Modernization: Concerns Over Security and Privacy Elements of the Systems Architecture (IMTEC-92-63). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alayed, R.A. 2010. Creating a culture of safety using electronic medical records as a tool. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. 2017. Learning About His Subjects, and Himself. New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2013, Kiatpongsan & Sipp 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kiatpongsan & Sipp 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Brashares et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntarctic Science
AbbreviationAntarct. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-1020
ISSN (online)1365-2079
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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