How to format your references using the Antarctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antarctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadis, S. 2000. The sky’s the limit as radio telescope array is approved. Nature, 406, 665–666.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bilde-Sørensen, J.B. & Schiøtz, J. 2003. Materials science. Nanocrystals get twins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300, 1244–1245.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, P.D., Day, T. & Wild, G. 2007. Evolution of cooperation in a finite homogeneous graph. Nature, 447, 469–472.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Impellizzeri, C.M.V., McKean, J.P., Castangia, P., Roy, A.L., Henkel, C., Brunthaler, A. & Wucknitz, O. 2008. A gravitationally lensed water maser in the early Universe. Nature, 456, 927–929.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann, K. 2005. System Integration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gelder, K. ed. 2016. New Directions in Popular Fiction: Genre, Distribution, Reproduction. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, XIII, 474 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Deutsch, M. 2015. Undoing Nuclear Insanity: A Psychological Perspective. In Deutsch, M., ed. Morton Deutsch: Major Texts on Peace Psychology. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antarctic Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2017. Can Magnetic Stimulation Help Alzheimer’s Patients Think Clearly? IFLScience Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Aviation Security: Cost Estimates Related to TSA Funding of Checked Baggage Screening Systems at Los Angeles and Ontario Airports (GAO-07-445). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naqvi, S.Z. 2017. Around the world in 15 bites: Applied perspectives on learning about food. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S.M. 2016. A Gasoline Desert Expands on an Island of Many Cars. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nadis 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Nadis 2000, Bilde-Sørensen & Schiøtz 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bilde-Sørensen & Schiøtz 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Impellizzeri et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntarctic Science
AbbreviationAntarct. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-1020
ISSN (online)1365-2079
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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