How to format your references using the Antarctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antarctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rocha, B. 2005. Comment on “Thymic origin of intestinal alphabeta T cells revealed by fate mapping of RORgammat+ cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 308, 1553; author reply 1553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clarke, A. & Kapustin, V. 2010. Hemispheric aerosol vertical profiles: anthropogenic impacts on optical depth and cloud nuclei. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329, 1488–1492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Batista, F.D., Iber, D. & Neuberger, M.S. 2001. B cells acquire antigen from target cells after synapse formation. Nature, 411, 489–494.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Spotila, J.R., Reina, R.D., Steyermark, A.C., Plotkin, P.T. & Paladino, F.V. 2000. Pacific leatherback turtles face extinction. Nature, 405, 529–530.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brook, M.V. 2011. Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Herrmann, H.C. ed. 2005. Interventional Cardiology: Percutaneous Noncoronary Intervention. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Pasadilla, G.O. & Édes, B.W. 2015. Enhancing Social Protection. In Kawai, M. & Lee, J.-W., eds. Rebalancing for Sustainable Growth: Asia’s Postcrisis Challenge. Economics, Law, and Institutions in Asia Pacific. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 143–177.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antarctic Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Why Ocean Energy Needs A Cyberinfrastructure To Thrive. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Direct Student Loans: Efforts to Resolve Lenders’ Problems With Consolidations Are Under Way (HEHS-98-103). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Torres, C. 2013. Grassroots in Santa Ana: Identity and conceptualizing community. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky, D. 2012. Court Decides Not to Certify Ouster Vote In Romania. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rocha 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Rocha 2005, Clarke & Kapustin 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clarke & Kapustin 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Spotila et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntarctic Science
AbbreviationAntarct. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-1020
ISSN (online)1365-2079
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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