How to format your references using the Antarctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antarctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willoughby, H.E. 2007. Atmosphere. Forecasting hurricane intensity and impacts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315, 1232–1233.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Sullivan, D. & Pearce, E.L. 2015. Immunology. Expanding the role of metabolism in T cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348, 976–977.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cochran, E.S., Vidale, J.E. & Tanaka, S. 2004. Earth tides can trigger shallow thrust fault earthquakes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306, 1164–1166.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bonacci, T.M., Mathews, J.L., Yuan, C., Lehmann, D.M., Malik, S., Wu, D., Font, J.L., Bidlack, J.M. & Smrcka, A.V. 2006. Differential targeting of Gbetagamma-subunit signaling with small molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312, 443–446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
“MAX” Maxfield, C. & Brown, A. 2005. The Definitive Guide to How Computers Do Math. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wehrtmann, I.S. & Cortés, J. eds. 2009. Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, XXXIV, 538 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Laghi, A., Paolantonio, P. & Lucchesi, P. 2008. Protocolli di studio e considerazioni dosimetriche. In Passariello, R., ed. La colonscopia virtuale. Milano: Springer, 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antarctic Science.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2017. Republicans Set To Sell Off 3.3 Million Acres Of Public Land. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Organization Organic Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 105671.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClenahan, A. 2017. The Impact of Media Promulgated Fear on the Psyche: Love Will Prevail. Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grundfest, J.A., Lemley, M.A. & Triantis, G.G. 2012. Getting More Bang for the Fed’s Buck. New York Times, A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willoughby 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Willoughby 2007, O’Sullivan & Pearce 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Sullivan & Pearce 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Bonacci et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntarctic Science
AbbreviationAntarct. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-1020
ISSN (online)1365-2079
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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