How to format your references using the Antarctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antarctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narlikar, J.V. 2000. Venture funding for new ideas. Nature, 404, 707.
A journal article with 2 authors
McCormick, C. & Ganem, D. 2005. The kaposin B protein of KSHV activates the p38/MK2 pathway and stabilizes cytokine mRNAs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 739–741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Y., Zhang, X. & Cao, D. 2013. The role of shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions. Scientific reports, 3, 3271.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Laczny, C.C., Pinel, N., Vlassis, N. & Wilmes, P. 2014. Alignment-free visualization of metagenomic data by nonlinear dimension reduction. Scientific reports, 4, 4516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schaik, C.P.V. 2015. The Primate Origins of Human Nature. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ramanna, S., Jain, L.C. & Howlett, R.J. eds. 2013. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, XXII, 498 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Matloff, G., Bangs, C. & Johnson, L. 2014. Earth Before People: Utopia or Nightmare? In Bangs, C. & Johnson, L., eds. Harvesting Space for a Greener Earth. New York, NY: Springer, 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antarctic Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016. Sonar Images Reveal A WW2 Submarine Sunk By A Nazi Ship. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Commercial Space Launch Insurance: Views Differ on Need for Change to Insurance Approach but Clarification Is Needed (GAO-17-88). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heckman, K.A. 2010. Pedogenesis & carbon dynamics across a lithosequence under ponderosa pine. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. 2017. Swiss Conductor Will Lead the Vienna State Opera. New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Narlikar 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Narlikar 2000, McCormick & Ganem 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McCormick & Ganem 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Laczny et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAntarctic Science
AbbreviationAntarct. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-1020
ISSN (online)1365-2079
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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