How to format your references using the Pathophysiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathophysiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.O. Kappe, Journal club. A chemist muses on the technique of microwaving flowing chemical reactions, Nature. 464 (2010) 817.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Ekert, R. Renner, The ultimate physical limits of privacy, Nature. 507 (2014) 443–447.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Exadaktylos, A.M. Espín, P. Brañas-Garza, Experimental subjects are not different, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1213.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Willert, J.D. Brown, E. Danenberg, A.W. Duncan, I.L. Weissman, T. Reya, J.R. Yates 3rd, R. Nusse, Wnt proteins are lipid-modified and can act as stem cell growth factors, Nature. 423 (2003) 448–452.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Kent, ADA in Details, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
S.R. Yang, K. Healey, eds., Gothic Landscapes: Changing Eras, Changing Cultures, Changing Anxieties, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
H.B.S. Cooke, Stratigraphic variation in Suidae from the Shungura Formation and some coeval deposits, in: R. Bobe, Z. Alemseged, A.K. Behrensmeyer (Eds.), Hominin Environments in the East African Pliocene: An Assessment of the Faunal Evidence, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007: pp. 107–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathophysiology.

Blog post
J. Fang, Ants Self-Medicate To Ward Off Fungal Infections, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Mediation Board: Progress Made on Some GAO Recommendations to Strengthen Operations, but Key Controls Continue to Be Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Penney, Executive Fire Officers’ strategic thinking capabilities and their relationship with information and communication technology, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, Netflix Lets Viewers Pick the Plot, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathophysiology
ISSN (print)0928-4680
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles