How to format your references using the Pathophysiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathophysiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.N. Sampat, Lessons from Bayh-Dole, Nature. 468 (2010) 755–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Elowitz, W.A. Lim, Build life to understand it, Nature. 468 (2010) 889–890.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.S. Levine, L. Blitz, C. Heiles, The spiral structure of the outer Milky Way in hydrogen, Science. 312 (2006) 1773–1777.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Tan, R. He, C. Cheng, D. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Chen, Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
M.O. Idowu, C.I. Dumur, C.T. Garrett, eds., Molecular Oncology Testing for Solid Tumors: A Pragmatic Approach, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Koehl, M. Le Moal, D.N. Abrous, Stress Disorders, in: T. Seki, K. Sawamoto, J.M. Parent, A. Alvarez-Buylla (Eds.), Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain II: Clinical Implications, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2011: pp. 53–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathophysiology.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Military Officials Say Climate Change Presents “Significant And Direct Risks To US Homeland,” IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Exiting Program Improvement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.C. Maas, Emergency department utilization patterns in patients with diabetes, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices Hear Arguments On Autism-Case Dispute, New York Times. (2007) A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathophysiology
ISSN (print)0928-4680
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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