How to format your references using the Acta Orthopaedica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Orthopaedica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stern P. The heavily connected brain. Connection, connection, connection... Introduction. Science. 2013;342(6158):577.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barthelme D, Sauer RT. Identification of the Cdc48•20S proteasome as an ancient AAA+ proteolytic machine. Science. 2012;337(6096):843–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffery WR, Strickler AG, Yamamoto Y. Migratory neural crest-like cells form body pigmentation in a urochordate embryo. Nature. 2004;431(7009):696–9.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kuhara A, Okumura M, Kimata T, Tanizawa Y, Takano R, Kimura KD, Inada H, Matsumoto K, Mori I. Temperature sensing by an olfactory neuron in a circuit controlling behavior of C. elegans. Science. 2008;320(5877):803–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaszeta D. CBRN and Hazmat Incidents at Major Public Events. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Moniuszko A. Nuclear Cardiology Study Guide: A Technologist’s Review for Passing Specialty Certification Exams. Kesala BA, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Özkaya N, Nordin M, Goldsheyder D, Leger D. Statics: Systems in Equilibrium. In: Nordin M, Goldsheyder D, Leger D, editors. Fundamentals of Biomechanics: Equilibrium, Motion, and Deformation. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 35–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Orthopaedica.

Blog post
Andrew D. Watch How Easily A Rat Can Wriggle Up Your Toilet. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs a Departmentwide Strategy for Pursuing Low-Cost, Responsive Tactical Space Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Mar. Report No.: GAO-06-449.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilmey DG. Synthesis and Study of Heteroatomic Spirocyclic Scaffolds [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Bill Is Passed to Ban Bots That Ticket Scalpers Use. New York Times. 2016;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stern 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Barthelme and Sauer 2012, Stern 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barthelme and Sauer 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuhara et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Orthopaedica
AbbreviationActa Orthop.
ISSN (print)1745-3674
ISSN (online)1745-3682
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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