How to format your references using the Acta Orthopaedica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Orthopaedica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crocker J. The road to fraud starts with a single step. Nature. 2011;479(7372):151.
A journal article with 2 authors
Egbert GD, Ray RD. Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data. Nature. 2000;405(6788):775–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Healy D, Jones RR, Holdsworth RE. Three-dimensional brittle shear fracturing by tensile crack interaction. Nature. 2006;439(7072):64–7.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zaiss DM, Yang L, Shah PR, Kobie JJ, Urban JF, Mosmann TR. Amphiregulin, a TH2 cytokine enhancing resistance to nematodes. Science. 2006;314(5806):1746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lévy P. The Semantic Sphere 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Cao B-Y, editor. Fuzzy Information and Engineering: Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Fuzzy Information and Engineering (ICFIE). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Dragan YP. Chemically-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis. In: Carr BI, editor. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Diagnosis and Treatment. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Orthopaedica.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Trailer For Man “Eaten Alive” By Anaconda Is Released. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation: Key Issues and Management Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Mar. Report No.: GAO-12-581T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilton LC. Case study on organic farming as a sustainable solution for African-American farmers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Apple’s First Big TV Move: A Spielberg Series Reboot. New York Times. 2017;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crocker 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Egbert and Ray 2000, Crocker 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Egbert and Ray 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Zaiss et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Orthopaedica
AbbreviationActa Orthop.
ISSN (print)1745-3674
ISSN (online)1745-3682
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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