How to format your references using the Acta Orthopaedica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Orthopaedica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martin TE. Ecology. The cost of fear. Science. 2011;334(6061):1353–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu X, Norell MA. A new troodontid dinosaur from China with avian-like sleeping posture. Nature. 2004;431(7010):838–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okada D, Ozawa F, Inokuchi K. Input-specific spine entry of soma-derived Vesl-1S protein conforms to synaptic tagging. Science. 2009;324(5929):904–9.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Wang J, Alexander P, Wu L, Hammer R, Cleaver O, McKnight SL. Dependence of mouse embryonic stem cells on threonine catabolism. Science. 2009;325(5939):435–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boillot M. Advanced Smart Grids for Distribution System Operators: Volume 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Hasan MA, Helleseth T, editors. Arithmetic of Finite Fields: Third International Workshop, WAIFI 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, June 27-30, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Desivilya Syna H. Social Divisions, Intergroup Conflict and Diversity. Reflections about Social Conflict and Diversity: the Case of Israeli Organizations. In: Müller A, editor. Re-thinking Diversity: Multiple Approaches in Theory, Media, Communities, and Managerial Practice. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2016. p. 55–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Orthopaedica.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Protect Planes And Passengers From Explosions On The Surface Of The Sun. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Runway Safety: Progress on Reducing Runway Incursions Impeded by Leadership, Technology, and Other Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Feb. Report No.: GAO-08-481T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mannar NK. Hri-Tech Consultants, LLC [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Not Over Till Overtime’s Due? Met Labor Strife Bares Secrets. New York Times. 2014;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Martin 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Xu and Norell 2004, Martin 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu and Norell 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Orthopaedica
AbbreviationActa Orthop.
ISSN (print)1745-3674
ISSN (online)1745-3682
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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