How to format your references using the Annals of the Association of American Geographers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Association of American Geographers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nolet, G. 2009. Geophysics. Slabs do not go gently. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5931):1152–1153.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iijima, S., and L.-C. Qin. 2002. Electron microscopic characterization of silver nanowire arrays. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5568):611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kelley, A. M., X. Michalet, and S. Weiss. 2001. Chemical physics. Single-molecule spectroscopy comes of age. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5522):1671–1672.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Tsukamoto, S., A. Kuma, M. Murakami, C. Kishi, A. Yamamoto, and N. Mizushima. 2008. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5885):117–120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni, L., and I. Perdomo. 2013. Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Liu, C.-L., A. Hussain, B. Luo, K. C. Tan, Y. Zeng, and Z. Zhang eds. 2016. Advances in Brain Inspired Cognitive Systems: 8th International Conference, BICS 2016, Beijing, China, November 28-30, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hansen, F. A., K. J. Kortbek, and K. Grønbæk. 2008. Mobile Urban Drama – Setting the Stage with Location Based Technologies. In Interactive Storytelling: First Joint International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2008 Erfurt, Germany, November 26-29, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. U. Spierling and N. Szilas, 20–31. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2017. Using Electricity, Not Molecules, To Switch Cells On And Off. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Federal Aviation Administration: Issues Concerning the Reauthorization of Aviation Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gill, G. J. 2009. The experience of family caregiving of the terminally ill: A phenomenological study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010. Chef’s Choice Is Rooting for Italy, Family Style. New York Times 15 June:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nolet 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Iijima and Qin 2002; Nolet 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iijima and Qin 2002)
  • Three authors: (Kelley, Michalet, and Weiss 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tsukamoto et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Association of American Geographers
AbbreviationAnn. Assoc. Am. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0004-5608
ISSN (online)1467-8306
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

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