How to format your references using the Annals of the Association of American Geographers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Association of American Geographers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harte, B. 2011. Geochemistry. Diamond window into the lower mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6052):51–52.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gosciniak, J., and D. T. H. Tan. 2013. Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators. Scientific reports 3:1897.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown, M. E., A. H. Bouchez, and C. A. Griffith. 2002. Direct detection of variable tropospheric clouds near Titan’s south pole. Nature 420 (6917):795–797.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Wang, H.-L., J. Yang, L. M. Boykin, Q.-Y. Zhao, Y.-J. Wang, S.-S. Liu, and X.-W. Wang. 2014. Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex. Scientific reports 4:6351.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prager, F. H., and H. Rosteck. 2006. Polyurethane and Fire. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Fritzsche, K., S. H. McDaniel, and M. Wirsching eds. 2014. Psychosomatic Medicine: An International Primer for the Primary Care Setting. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Badrinath Krishna, V., G. A. Weaver, and W. H. Sanders. 2015. PCA-Based Method for Detecting Integrity Attacks on Advanced Metering Infrastructure. In Quantitative Evaluation of Systems: 12th International Conference, QEST 2015, Madrid, Spain, September 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. J. Campos and B. R. Haverkort, 70–85. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. One Ton Of Illegal Ivory Set To Be Publicly Destroyed In Times Square Today. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Airport Financing: Annual Funding As Much As $3 Billion Less Than Planned Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheaton, H. F. 2012. The Relationship between Team Captains’ Leadership Styles and Team Performance.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010. Setting a New Standard for a Long-Beleaguered Franchise. New York Times 16 October:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harte 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Harte 2011; Gosciniak and Tan 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gosciniak and Tan 2013)
  • Three authors: (Brown, Bouchez, and Griffith 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Association of American Geographers
AbbreviationAnn. Assoc. Am. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0004-5608
ISSN (online)1467-8306
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

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