How to format your references using the Annals of the Association of American Geographers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Association of American Geographers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gordon, P. 2004. Numerical cognition without words: evidence from Amazonia. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5695):496–499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birney, E., and N. Soranzo. 2015. Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing. Nature 526 (7571):52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, B., J. Chen, and R. H. Singer. 2014. Background free imaging of single mRNAs in live cells using split fluorescent proteins. Scientific reports 4:3615.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Erwin, S. C., L. Zu, M. I. Haftel, A. L. Efros, T. A. Kennedy, and D. J. Norris. 2005. Doping semiconductor nanocrystals. Nature 436 (7047):91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, B. M. 2011. Fundamentals of Ionized Gases. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Iuchi, S., and N. Kuldell eds. 2005. Zinc Finger Proteins: From Atomic Contact to Cellular Function. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Hrušovský, M., and K. Noeres. 2012. Exploring the IT-enabled Optimisation Potential of Cruise Excursions. In Cruise Management: Information and Decision Support Systems, eds. A. Papathanassis, M. H. Breitner, C. Schoen, and N. Guhr, 105–113. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. You Could Be Flying In A Windowless Plane Within A Decade. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Comments on H.R. 5103, Mineta letter. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maas, C. C. 2014. Emergency department utilization patterns in patients with diabetes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. 2017. Harlem Rezoning Proposal Would Create Memorial To African Burial Ground. New York Times 26 September:A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gordon 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gordon 2004; Birney and Soranzo 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birney and Soranzo 2015)
  • Three authors: (Wu, Chen, and Singer 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Erwin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Association of American Geographers
AbbreviationAnn. Assoc. Am. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0004-5608
ISSN (online)1467-8306
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

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