How to format your references using the Annals of the Association of American Geographers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of the Association of American Geographers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bunk, S. 2002. Teaching science graduates to think business. Nature 417 (6890):4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully, K. M., and M. G. Rosenfeld. 2002. Pituitary development: regulatory codes in mammalian organogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5563):2231–2235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Z., H. Li, and Y. Sheng. 2014. Effects of reciprocity on random walks in weighted networks. Scientific reports 4:7460.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Huxley, A., P. Rodiere, D. M. Paul, van Dijk N, R. Cubitt, and J. Flouquet. 2000. Realignment of the flux-line lattice by a change in the symmetry of superconductivity in UPt3. Nature 406 (6792):160–164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massad, J. J., D. R. Cagna, C. J. Goodacre, R. A. Wicks, and S. A. Ahuja. 2017. Application of the Neutral Zone in Prosthodontics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Favini, A. 2012. Degenerate Nonlinear Diffusion Equations ed. G. Marinoschi. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nevado, L. S. i., P. Portaankorva-Koivisto, E. Pehkonen, L. Varas, M. Hannula, and L. Näveri. 2015. Chilean and Finnish Teachers’ Conceptions on Mathematics Teaching. In Views and Beliefs in Mathematics Education: Results of the 19th MAVI Conference, Freiburger Empirische Forschung in der Mathematikdidaktik., eds. C. Bernack-Schüler, R. Erens, T. Leuders, and A. Eichler, 43–53. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2016. Scientists Have Turned Spinach Into A Bomb Detector. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Problems and Needed Improvements in Evaluating Office of Education Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rawashdeh, M. Y. 2013. A Relational Framework for Clustering and Cluster Validity and the Generalization of the Silhouette Measure.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. 2016. Was That a Presidential Debate or a Pitch for an Edgy Trump Channel? New York Times 20 October:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bunk 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bunk 2002; Scully and Rosenfeld 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scully and Rosenfeld 2002)
  • Three authors: (Zhang, Li, and Sheng 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huxley et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of the Association of American Geographers
AbbreviationAnn. Assoc. Am. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0004-5608
ISSN (online)1467-8306
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles