How to format your references using the Annals of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Russo, The birth of biotechnology, Nature. 421 (2003) 456–457.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.B. Feany, W.W. Bender, A Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease, Nature. 404 (2000) 394–398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Saeed, N. Singh, U. Schwingenschlögl, Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4390.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Krause, L. Berbil-Bautista, G. Herzog, M. Bode, R. Wiesendanger, Current-induced magnetization switching with a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope, Science. 317 (2007) 1537–1540.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Warren, Dunes, John Wiley & Sons, Oxford, 2013.
An edited book
L.A. Maciaszek, C. González-Pérez, S. Jablonski, eds., Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering: 3rd and 4th International Conferences, ENASE 2008/2009, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, May 4-7, 2008 / Milan, Italy, May 9-10, 2009. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Bückström, V. Birzniece, G. Fernández, I.-M. Johansson, K. Kask, C. Lindblad, P. Lundgren, S. Nyberg, G. Ragagnin, I. Sundström-Poromaa, J. Strömberg, S. Turkmen, M.-D. Wang, F. van Broekhoven, G. van Wingen, Neuroactive Steroids: Effects on Cognitive Functions, in: M.S. Ritsner, A. Weizman (Eds.), Neuroactive Steroids in Brain Function, Behavior and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Novel Strategies for Research and Treatment, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008: pp. 103–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Physics.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Why Do Bluebirds Have A Better Home Turf Defence?, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: Certification and Approval Processes Are Generally Viewed as Working Well, but Better Evaluative Information Needed to Improve Efficiency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.M. Gikiri, Effects of attitude, norms, and perceived behavior control on intentions to become a teen father, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, S. Patel, Because I Was a Girl, New York Times. (2016) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Physics
AbbreviationAnn. Phys. (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)0003-4916
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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