How to format your references using the Annals of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.J. Moore, RNA events. No end to nonsense, Science. 298 (2002) 370–371.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Mesgarani, E.F. Chang, Selective cortical representation of attended speaker in multi-talker speech perception, Nature. 485 (2012) 233–236.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Terrones, F. López-Urías, M. Terrones, Novel hetero-layered materials with tunable direct band gaps by sandwiching different metal disulfides and diselenides, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1549.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Englund, C.E. Lorén, C. Grabbe, G.K. Varshney, F. Deleuil, B. Hallberg, R.H. Palmer, Jeb signals through the Alk receptor tyrosine kinase to drive visceral muscle fusion, Nature. 425 (2003) 512–516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. McDonnell, D. Sheard, A Practical Guide to Decontamination in Healthcare, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
S. Greco, Y. Hata, S. Hirano, M. Inuiguchi, S. Miyamoto, H.S. Nguyen, R. Słowiński, eds., Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing: 5th International Conference, RSCTC 2006 Kobe, Japan, November 6-8, 2006 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Dabbagh, A.D. Benson, A. Denham, R. Joseph, M. Al-Freih, G. Zgheib, H. Fake, Z. Guo, Augmented Reality, in: A.D. Benson, A. Denham, R. Joseph, M. Al-Freih, G. Zgheib, H. Fake, Z. Guo (Eds.), Learning Technologies and Globalization: Pedagogical Frameworks and Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 27–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Physics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, 10 Bizarre Medical Conditions, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ADP: USDA Farm Service Agencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Baghaei Lakeh, Approximate Analytical Solutions of a Generalized van der Pol Oscillator, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.R. Oestreich, Where Youth Meets Musical Beauty, New York Times. (2017) C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Physics
AbbreviationAnn. Phys. (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)0003-4916
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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