How to format your references using the Annals of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Cho, Computer science. Quantum or not, controversial computer yields no speedup, Science. 344 (2014) 1330–1331.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.M. Getz, J.O. Lloyd-Smith, Comment on “On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects” I, Science. 311 (2006) 1100; author reply 1100.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Rikkinen, I. Oksanen, K. Lohtander, Lichen guilds share related cyanobacterial symbionts, Science. 297 (2002) 357.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Zheng, J.E. Mellem, P.J. Brockie, D.M. Madsen, A.V. Maricq, SOL-1 is a CUB-domain protein required for GLR-1 glutamate receptor function in C. elegans, Nature. 427 (2004) 451–457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.D. Reeve, DC Power System Design for Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
X. Jing, Frequency Domain Analysis and Design of Nonlinear Systems based on Volterra Series Expansion: A Parametric Characteristic Approach, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Gatehouse, N. Ferry, Successes and Failures in Plant-Insect Interactions: Is it Possible to Stay One Step Ahead of the Insects?, in: G. Smagghe, I. Diaz (Eds.), Arthropod-Plant Interactions: Novel Insights and Approaches for IPM, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 89–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Physics.

Blog post
R. Andrews, New Laser Could Generate Sun’s Core Temperature Instantaneously, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Nextgen Air Transportation System: Mechanisms for Collaboration and Technology Transfer Could Be Enhanced to More Fully Leverage Partner Agency and Industry Resources, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.A. Hsieh, Informed Technology Adoption Decisions Based on Innovation-Related Factors, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Running the World With Eyes Wide Open, New York Times. (2012) B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Physics
AbbreviationAnn. Phys. (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)0003-4916
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

Other styles