How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, J. (2001). Physical sciences lose ground as US shifts towards biology. Nature, 412(6844), 259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kabeche, L., & Compton, D. A. (2013). Cyclin A regulates kinetochore microtubules to promote faithful chromosome segregation. Nature, 502(7469), 110–113.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gardner, T. J., Naef, F., & Nottebohm, F. (2005). Freedom and rules: the acquisition and reprogramming of a bird’s learned song. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5724), 1046–1049.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, L., He, D., Feng, S., Yu, C., Hu, L., Qiu, J., & Chen, D. (2014). Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber. Scientific Reports, 4, 6139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ezra, D., Collie, B., & Smith, M. X. (2009). The Retirement Plan Solution. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Capogna, G. (Ed.). (2015). Epidural Labor Analgesia: Childbirth Without Pain. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Haines, A. J., Dimitrova, L. L., Wallace, L. M., & Williams, C. A. (2015). Application to Central South Island, New Zealand. In L. L. Dimitrova, L. M. Wallace, & C. A. Williams (Eds.), Enhanced Surface Imaging of Crustal Deformation: Obtaining Tectonic Force Fields Using GPS Data (pp. 63–75). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 24). Invaders Drove Lizards to Evolve Stickier Feet in Just 10 Years. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Air Force Bombers: Conventional Capabilities of the B-1B Bomber (T-NSIAD-94-169). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barham, O. M. (2017). Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2010, October 3). Burgers With Attitude. New York Times, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knight, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kabeche & Compton, 2013; Knight, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kabeche & Compton, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Gardner et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn.
ISSN (print)0278-7393
ISSN (online)1939-1285
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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