How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marine, J.-C. (2010). Journal club. A cancer geneticist looks at the link between small RNA molecules and cancer. Nature, 464(7293), 1249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolpert, L., & Szathmáry, E. (2002). Multicellularity: evolution and the egg. Nature, 420(6917), 745.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bartels, A., Heinecke, D., & Diddams, S. A. (2009). 10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5953), 681.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fox, J. E., Starcevic, M., Kow, K. Y., Burow, M. E., & McLachlan, J. A. (2001). Nitrogen fixation. Endocrine disrupters and flavonoid signalling. Nature, 413(6852), 128–129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, E. (2012). Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zumbo, B. D., & Chan, E. K. H. (Eds.). (2014). Validity and Validation in Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences (Vol. 54). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Adacher, L., & Flamini, M. (2011). Limiting Pollution in Ground Control Optimization. In D. Kranzlmüller & A. M. Toja (Eds.), Information and Communication on Technology for the Fight against Global Warming: First International Conference, ICT-GLOW 2011, Toulouse, France, August 30-31, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 41–55). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 29). Reptiles That Delay Sex And Kids Live Longer. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Weather Forecasting: Radar Availability Requirement Not Being Met (AIMD-95-132). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughan, L. (2008). Executive function in daily life: Age-related influences of executive processes on instrumental activities of daily living [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled B Y. (2004, December 14). Arts, Briefly; Rachmaninoff Score Unsold. New York Times, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marine, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Marine, 2010; Wolpert & Szathmáry, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolpert & Szathmáry, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Bartels et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fox et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn.
ISSN (print)0278-7393
ISSN (online)1939-1285
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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