How to format your references using the Annals of Medicine and Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Medicine and Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Aharonian, The very-high-energy gamma-ray sky, Science. 315 (2007) 70–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Steiner, H. Ploegh, Herman Eisen (1918-2014), Nature. 516 (2014) 38.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Dankert, R.S. Dulal, S.P. Dash, Efficient spin injection into silicon and the role of the Schottky barrier, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3196.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.B. Calford, Y.M. Chino, A. Das, U.T. Eysel, C.D. Gilbert, S.J. Heinen, J.H. Kaas, S. Ullman, Neuroscience: rewiring the adult brain, Nature. 438 (2005) E3; discussion E3-4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Nappi, V. Peskov, Imaging Gaseous Detectors and Their Applications, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
V. Beckmann, M. Padmanabhan, eds., Institutions and Sustainability: Political Economy of Agriculture and the Environment - Essays in Honour of Konrad Hagedorn, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A.D. Lakhani, E.Y. Yang, B. Matthews, I. Johnson, S. Naqvi, G.C. Silaghi, Threat Analysis and Attacks on XtreemOS: a Grid–enabled Operating System, in: T. Priol, M. Vanneschi (Eds.), Towards Next Generation Grids: Proceedings of the CoreGRID Symposium 2007, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007: pp. 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Medicine and Surgery.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Iceland Is Drilling Four Kilometers Into A Volcano To Produce Clean Energy, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Aviation Repair Stations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.E. Ringberg, Daily life at Cerro León, an Early Intermediate period highland settlement in the Moche Valley, Peru, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Anderson, A First-Timer, but No Rookie, New York Times. (2017) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Medicine and Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Med. Surg. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2049-0801

Other styles