How to format your references using the Statistics in Biosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Statistics in Biosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grubb M (2012) Emissions trading: Cap and trade finds new energy. Nature 491:666–667
A journal article with 2 authors
Yewdell JW, Ince WL (2012) Virology. Frameshifting to PA-X influenza. Science 337:164–165
A journal article with 3 authors
Moreira JA, Pacheco JM, Santos FC (2013) Evolution of collective action in adaptive social structures. Sci Rep 3:1521
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Clarke G, Collins RA, Leavitt BR, et al (2000) A one-hit model of cell death in inherited neuronal degenerations. Nature 406:195–199

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heitz E, Kreysa G (2005) Grundlagen der Technischen Elektrochemie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Bonazza R, Ranjan D (2015) 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves 1: Volume 1. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pachler N, Bachmair B, Cook J (2010) Whither a Socio-Cultural Ecology of Learning with Mobile Devices. In: Bachmair B, Cook J (eds) Mobile Learning: Structures, Agency, Practices. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 155–171

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Statistics in Biosciences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Does Drinking Wine Seriously Engage Your Brain More Than A Math Problem? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Railroad Safety: DOT Should Better Manage Its Hazardous Materials Inspection Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wurster KW (2010) Management matter? Effects of charcoal production management on woodland regeneration in Senegal. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993) Saint Hillary. New York Times 622

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStatistics in Biosciences
AbbreviationStat. Biosci.
ISSN (print)1867-1764
ISSN (online)1867-1772
ScopeBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability

Other styles