How to format your references using the Annals of Leisure Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Leisure Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling, G. 2000. “Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A Hundred Million Points of Light.” Nature 407 (6804): 557.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gong, Chenguang, and Lynne E. Maquat. 2011. “LncRNAs Transactivate STAU1-Mediated MRNA Decay by Duplexing with 3’ UTRs via Alu Elements.” Nature 470 (7333): 284–288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Séguin, Béatrice, Peter A. Singer, and Abdallah S. Daar. 2006. “Science Community: Scientific Diasporas.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5780): 1602–1603.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Urani, Alexandre, Raoul Tan, Renzo Rubele, and Daniel Mietchen. 2004. “Scientists and Societies: Giving Young European Students a Voice.” Nature 427 (6972): 378.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lutzke, Dieter. 2012. Surfen in Die Digitale Zukunft. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gruba, Paul. 2016. Blended Language Program Evaluation. Edited by Mónica S. Cárdenas-Claros, Ruslan Suvorov, and Katherine Rick. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Koplin, Richard S., Elaine I. Wu, David C. Ritterband, and John A. Seedor. 2013. “Infection Control.” In The Scrub’s Bible: How to Assist at Cataract and Corneal Surgery with a Primer on the Anatomy of the Human Eye and Self Assessment, edited by Elaine I. Wu, David C. Ritterband, and John A. Seedor, 25–29. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Leisure Research.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Two-Thirds Of Germany Was Powered By Renewable Energy On Easter Sunday.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Department of Education: The Eisenhower Math and Science State Grant Program. HRD-93-25. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarter, Kimberly M. 2008. “The Effect of Auditory Stimulation on Learners with Different Learning Styles.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Kate. 2017. “Trump Has Stocks Up. Some Funds Are Leery.” New York Times, March 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schilling 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schilling 2000; Gong and Maquat 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gong and Maquat 2011)
  • Three authors: (Séguin, Singer, and Daar 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Urani et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Leisure Research
AbbreviationAnn. Leis. Res.
ISSN (print)1174-5398
ISSN (online)2159-6816
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Social Psychology
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

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