How to format your references using the Annals of Leisure Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Leisure Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Canup, Robin M. 2005. “A Giant Impact Origin of Pluto-Charon.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5709): 546–550.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, Torrence V., and Jonathan I. Lunine. 2005. “Saturn’s Moon Phoebe as a Captured Body from the Outer Solar System.” Nature 435 (7038): 69–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vasudevan, Shobha, Yingchun Tong, and Joan A. Steitz. 2007. “Switching from Repression to Activation: MicroRNAs Can up-Regulate Translation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5858): 1931–1934.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Alexander, C. M. O’d, J. N. Grossman, D. S. Ebel, and F. J. Ciesla. 2008. “The Formation Conditions of Chondrules and Chondrites.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5883): 1617–1619.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minei, Ina, and Julian Lucek. 2006. MPLS-Enabled Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Teixeira, António, and Giorgio Maria Tosi Beleffi, eds. 2012. Optical Transmission: The FP7 BONE Project Experience. Signals and Communication Technology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Reiner, Miriam. 2008. “Seeing Through Touch: The Role of Haptic Information in Visualization.” In Visualization: Theory and Practice in Science Education, edited by John K. Gilbert, Miriam Reiner, and Mary Nakhleh, 73–84. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Leisure Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “5 Of The Most Earth-Like Planets We’ve Found.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Social Security: Quality of Services Generally Rated High by Clients Sampled. HRD-86-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scharf, Mark T. 2015. “Comparing Student Cumulative Course Grades, Attrition, and Satisfaction in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Environments.” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Harper’s Return Gives Nationals a Timely Boost.” New York Times, September 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Canup 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Canup 2005; Johnson and Lunine 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Lunine 2005)
  • Three authors: (Vasudevan, Tong, and Steitz 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Alexander et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Leisure Research
AbbreviationAnn. Leis. Res.
ISSN (print)1174-5398
ISSN (online)2159-6816
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Social Psychology
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

Other styles