How to format your references using the Annals of Leisure Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Leisure Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chambers, Scott A. 2014. “Surface Science. Stability at the Surface.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6214): 1186–1187.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lukas, Jiri, and Claudia Lukas. 2013. “Molecular Biology. Shielding Broken DNA for a Quick Fix.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6120): 652–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajagopalan, Jagannathan, Jong H. Han, and M. Taher A. Saif. 2007. “Plastic Deformation Recovery in Freestanding Nanocrystalline Aluminum and Gold Thin Films.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5820): 1831–1834.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, Deok Yeon, Chan Yong Shin, Seog Joon Yoon, Haw Young Lee, Wonjoo Lee, Nabeen K. Shrestha, Joong Kee Lee, and Sung-Hwan Han. 2014. “Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Cu-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks Sensitized Solar Cell by Addition of Carbon Nanotubes.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 3930.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarman, Kristin H. 2015. Beyond Basic Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hall, Budd L., Darlene E. Clover, Jim Crowther, and Eurig Scandrett, eds. 2012. Learnning and Educationfor a Bettter World: The Role of Social Movements. Vol. 10. International Issues in Adult Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Tamburrini, Oscar, and Francesco Dalla Palma. 2010. “Atto Medico Radiologico.” In Management in Radiologia, edited by Lorenzo Bonomo, Alessandro Carriero, Maurizio Centonze, and Tommaso Scarabino, 49–66. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Leisure Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Disease Evolution: The Origins Of Anorexia And How It’s Shaped By Culture And Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority: Improved Planning of Future Rehabilitation Projects Could Prevent Limitations Identified with SafeTrack. GAO-17-348. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, Gang. 2005. “Essays On Using Weather Derivatives In Dairy Production.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2016. “Home Runs, Not Surprisingly, Lift the Mets.” New York Times, September 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chambers 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chambers 2014; Lukas and Lukas 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lukas and Lukas 2013)
  • Three authors: (Rajagopalan, Han, and Saif 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lee et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Leisure Research
AbbreviationAnn. Leis. Res.
ISSN (print)1174-5398
ISSN (online)2159-6816
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Social Psychology
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

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