How to format your references using the Annals of Leisure Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Leisure Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benford, Gregory. 2004. “Reality Is Wilder.” Nature 432 (7020): 955.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw, Reuben J., and Lewis C. Cantley. 2012. “Cell Biology. Ancient Sensor for Ancient Drug.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6083): 813–814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ivany, L. C., W. P. Patterson, and K. C. Lohmann. 2000. “Cooler Winters as a Possible Cause of Mass Extinctions at the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary.” Nature 407 (6806): 887–890.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Adamantidis, Antoine R., Feng Zhang, Alexander M. Aravanis, Karl Deisseroth, and Luis de Lecea. 2007. “Neural Substrates of Awakening Probed with Optogenetic Control of Hypocretin Neurons.” Nature 450 (7168): 420–424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M. R., J. S. Islam, G. M. Zatzman, M. A. H. Mughal, and M. Safiur Rahman. 2015. The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Oliver, Miquel, and Sebastià Sallent, eds. 2009. The Internet of the Future: 15th Open European Summer School and IFIP TC6.6 Workshop, EUNICE 2009, Barcelona, Spain, September 7-9, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5733. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kunche, Prajna, and K. V. V. S. Reddy. 2016. “Application of Meta-Heuristics to Speech Enhancement.” In Metaheuristic Applications to Speech Enhancement, edited by K. V. V. S. Reddy, 25–37. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Leisure Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Biggest Map Of Giant Voids And Clusters In The Universe Solves Major Cosmological Puzzle.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. On-the-Job Training: Federal Highway Administration Needs to Strengthen Program Assessment. GAO-11-703. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bourne, Bea B. 2009. “Phenomenological Study of Response to Organizational Change: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, James, and Melissa Eddy. 2016. “E.U. Official Apologizes For Comments On Chinese.” New York Times, November 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benford 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Benford 2004; Shaw and Cantley 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shaw and Cantley 2012)
  • Three authors: (Ivany, Patterson, and Lohmann 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Adamantidis et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Leisure Research
AbbreviationAnn. Leis. Res.
ISSN (print)1174-5398
ISSN (online)2159-6816
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Social Psychology
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

Other styles