How to format your references using the Annals of Leisure Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Leisure Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sargent, P. 2000. “Too Many Memories.” Nature 408 (6812): 525.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doma, Meenakshi K., and Roy Parker. 2006. “Endonucleolytic Cleavage of Eukaryotic MRNAs with Stalls in Translation Elongation.” Nature 440 (7083): 561–564.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park, S., J. M. Vohs, and R. J. Gorte. 2000. “Direct Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell.” Nature 404 (6775): 265–267.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, L. X., W. J. Jäger, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler. 2001. “Capturing a Photoexcited Molecular Structure through Time-Domain x-Ray Absorption Fine Structure.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5515): 262–264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn, George. 2005. HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Huang, De-Shuang, Kyungsook Han, and Michael Gromiha, eds. 2014. Intelligent Computing in Bioinformatics: 10th International Conference, ICIC 2014, Taiyuan, China, August 3-6, 2014. Proceedings. Vol. 8590. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sheng, Zhifeng, Patrick Dewilde, and Shivkumar Chandrasekaran. 2007. “Algorithms to Solve Hierarchically Semi-Separable Systems.” In System Theory, the Schur Algorithm and Multidimensional Analysis, edited by Daniel Alpay and Victor Vinnikov, 255–294. Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Leisure Research.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “Secret Meeting Of Scientists To Discuss Creating Synthetic Human Genome Fuels Speculation.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Space Launch System: Resources Need to Be Matched to Requirements to Decrease Risk and Support Long Term Affordability. GAO-14-631. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Douville, Suzan. 2014. “The Lived Experience of Being a European Wife to a U.S. Marine: A Heuristic Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2017. “Despite Security Measures, Concert Arenas Present ‘Target-Rich’ Environments.” New York Times, May 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sargent 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sargent 2000; Doma and Parker 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doma and Parker 2006)
  • Three authors: (Park, Vohs, and Gorte 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Leisure Research
AbbreviationAnn. Leis. Res.
ISSN (print)1174-5398
ISSN (online)2159-6816
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Social Psychology
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

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