How to format your references using the Annals of Leisure Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Leisure Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek, Frank. 2005. “In Search of Symmetry Lost.” Nature 433 (7023): 239–247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rinberg, D., and H. Davidowitz. 2000. “Do Cockroaches ‘know’ about Fluid Dynamics?” Nature 405 (6788): 756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Weixiao, Yongliang Shang, and Wei Li. 2014. “Gp78 Elongates of Polyubiquitin Chains from the Distal End through the Cooperation of Its G2BR and CUE Domains.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7138.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kikuchi, Tatsuya, Osamu Nishinaga, Daiki Nakajima, Jun Kawashima, Shungo Natsui, Norihito Sakaguchi, and Ryosuke O. Suzuki. 2014. “Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7411.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brendel, Rolf. 2005. Thin-Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Krcmar, Helmut, Ralf Reussner, and Bernhard Rumpe, eds. 2014. Trusted Cloud Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hemming, Debbie, Maureen D. Agnew, Clare M. Goodess, Christos Giannakopoulos, Skander Ben Salem, Marco Bindi, Mohamed Nejmeddine Bradai, et al. 2013. “Climate Impact Assessments.” In Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean: Volume 3: Case Studies, edited by Antonio Navarra and Laurence Tubiana, 61–104. Advances in Global Change Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Leisure Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “HIV Latent Reservoir Much Larger Than Thought.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. AA-96-30(4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, Valerie Denise. 2014. “Leadership Behavior Practice Patterns’ Relationship to Employee Work Engagement in a Nonprofit That Supports the Homeless.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2002. “Downbeat of Feet Uptown in Harlem.” New York Times, November 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilczek 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Wilczek 2005; Rinberg and Davidowitz 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rinberg and Davidowitz 2000)
  • Three authors: (Liu, Shang, and Li 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kikuchi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Leisure Research
AbbreviationAnn. Leis. Res.
ISSN (print)1174-5398
ISSN (online)2159-6816
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Social Psychology
Geography, Planning and Development
Cultural Studies

Other styles