How to format your references using the Annals of Joint citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Joint (AOJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling G. Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A hundred million points of light. Nature 2000;407:557.
A journal article with 2 authors
Webster CR, Heymsfield AJ. Water isotope ratios D/H, 18O/16O, 17O/16O in and out of clouds map dehydration pathways. Science 2003;302:1742–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen P-C, Lin M-S, Lin C-F. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission. Sci Rep 2014;4:5307.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Al-Khatib SM, Califf RM, Hasselblad V, Alexander JH, McCrory DC, Sugarman J. Medicine. Placebo-controls in short-term clinical trials of hypertension. Science 2001;292:2013–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrasco RA, Johnston M. Non-Binary Error Control Coding for Wireless Communication and Data Storage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Shi YQ, Kim H-J, Pérez-González F, editors. The International Workshop on Digital Forensics and Watermarking 2012: 11th International Workshop, IWDW 2012, Shanghai, China, October 31 – November 3, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 7809. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Abedi S, Arvani A, Jamalzadeh R. Cyber Security of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Application of Intrusion Detection Methods. In: Rajakaruna S, Shahnia F, Ghosh A, editors. Plug In Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Integration Techniques, Singapore: Springer, 2015:129–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Joint.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Amputee Gamer Gets Bionic Arm That Has Its Own Drone. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Academy Preparatory Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu Y. Analysis on the distinct path in a star interconnection network. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski S. The Dangers of a Student Data Clampdown. New York Times 2015:BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Joint
AbbreviationAnn. Jt.
ISSN (online)2415-6809

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