How to format your references using the Annals of Joint citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Joint (AOJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Chandler D. Hydrophobicity: two faces of water. Nature 2002;417:491.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Brivanlou AH, Darnell JE Jr. Signal transduction and the control of gene expression. Science 2002;295:813–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Petersen J, Volz J, Rauschenbeutel A. Nanophotonics. Chiral nanophotonic waveguide interface based on spin-orbit interaction of light. Science 2014;346:67–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Imasaki T, Calero G, Cai G, et al. Architecture of the Mediator head module. Nature 2011;475:240–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Tue NV, Reichel M, Fischer M. Berechnung und Bemessung von Betonbrücken. Berlin, Germany: Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, 2016.
An edited book
1
Silverstein JH, Rooke GA, Reves JG, McLeskey CH, editors. Geriatric Anesthesiology. Second Edition. New York, NY: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Pilon-Smits EAH. Selenium in Plants. In: Lüttge U, Beyschlag W, editors. Progress in Botany: Vol. 76, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015:93–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Joint.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Throwing Science At Anti-Vaxxers Just Makes Them More Hardline. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/throwing-science-anti-vaxxers-just-makes-them-more-hardline/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Safeguarding Taxpayer Information: An Evaluation of the Proposed Computerized Tax Administration System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Luscinski A. Best Practices in Adult Online Learning. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Kanter J. Price-Fixing Inquiry Moves From BMW to Daimler and VW. New York Times 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Joint
AbbreviationAnn. Jt.
ISSN (online)2415-6809
Scope

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