How to format your references using the Annals of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Valadkhan S. Young Scientist Award essay winner. Construction of a minimal, protein-free spliceosome. Science 2005;307:863–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chittka L, Schürkens S. Successful invasion of a floral market. Nature 2001;411:653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Y, Forsyth DW, Savage B. Convective upwelling in the mantle beneath the Gulf of California. Nature 2009;462:499–501.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Silveira JR, Raymond GJ, Hughson AG, Race RE, Sim VL, Hayes SF, et al. The most infectious prion protein particles. Nature 2005;437:257–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Gyurky SM. The Cognitive Dynamics of Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Gutiérrez-López GF, Barbosa-Cánovas GV, Welti-Chanes J, Parada-Arias E, editors. Food Engineering: Integrated Approaches. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Tosin A. Kinetic Equations and Stochastic Game Theory for Social Systems. In: Celletti A, Locatelli U, Ruggeri T, Strickland E, editors. Mathematical Models and Methods for Planet Earth, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 37–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Evans K. An Asteroid Just Flew By Earth About 50% Closer Than The Moon, And We Barely Saw It Coming. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. UMTA Project Oversight and Mass Transit Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Onal B. RFID feasibility study for check-out stations at supermarkets. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Have Guitar, Will Picket. New York Times 1997:148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Epidemiology
AbbreviationAnn. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1047-2797

Other styles