How to format your references using the Annals of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx CJ. Microbiology. Getting in touch with your friends. Science 2009;324:1150–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oh DY, Olefsky JM. Medicine. Wnt fans the flames in obesity. Science 2010;329:397–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richard D, Clanet C, Quéré D. Contact time of a bouncing drop. Nature 2002;417:811.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ming G-L, Wong ST, Henley J, Yuan X-B, Song H-J, Spitzer NC, et al. Adaptation in the chemotactic guidance of nerve growth cones. Nature 2002;417:411–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindl T, Steubing R. Atlas of Living Cell Cultures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Sam D-JM, editor. Leptin: Regulation and Clinical Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Skadiņa I, Veisbergs A, Vasiļjevs A, Gornostaja T, Keiša I, Rudzīte A. Par META-NET. In: Rehm G, Uszkoreit H, editors. The Latvian Language in the Digital Age, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 39–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Did This Bioluminescent Bug Get Its Glow? IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety Research and Development--Better Management Can Make It More Useful. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens T. The evolution of transformative communication patterns in 1-to-1 computing classrooms. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L. Bridal Hunger Games. New York Times 2012:ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Epidemiology
AbbreviationAnn. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)1047-2797

Other styles