How to format your references using the Synlett citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synlett. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coontz, R. Science 2008, 321, 858.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rafii, S.; Lyden, D. Science 2008, 319, 163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pagel, M.; Atkinson, Q. D.; Meade, A. Nature 2007, 449, 717.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pawlowski, W. P.; Golubovskaya, I. N.; Timofejeva, L.; Meeley, R. B.; Sheridan, W. F.; Cande, W. Z. Science 2004, 303, 89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton, E. Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Duan, L. Cognitive Virtual Network Operator Games; Huang, J.; Shou, B., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Computer Science; Springer: New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Culea, M.; Culea, E.; Cozar, O.; Ilesan, D.; Udrescu, M. In International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology: 23–26 September, 2009, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; Vlad, S.; Ciupa, R. V.; Nicu, A. I., Eds.; IFMBE Proceedings; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; 19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synlett.

Blog post
Andrew, E. New Study Says Beef 10x More Damaging To The Environment Than Chicken, Pork Or Dairy Foods (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Comments on Claim Against Mississippi for Disallowed Educational Grant Expenditures; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrus, A. K. Cellular and Proteomic Characterization of the Innate Immune Response in Wasting Bat Stars (Patiria miniata). Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M.; Walsh, M. W. New York Times 2011, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSynlett
ISSN (print)0936-5214

Other styles