How to format your references using the Synlett citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Synlett. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, P. L. Science 2005, 310, 631.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waldschmidt, T. J.; Noelle, R. J. Science 2001, 293, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gottfried, J. A.; O’Doherty, J.; Dolan, R. J. Science 2003, 301, 1104.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, Y. T.; Xue, Y. B.; Chen, D.; Wang, Y. J.; Zhang, B.; Ma, X. L. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5118.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, F. J. Digital Filters; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems with Emphasis on Trichogramma; Consoli, F. L.; Parra, J. R. P.; Zucchi, R. A., Eds.; Progress in Biological Control; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; Vol. 9.
A chapter in an edited book
Blankenship, J.; Bussa, M.; Millett, S. In Pro Agile .NET Development with Scrum; Bussa, M.; Millett, S., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2011; 87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Synlett.

Blog post
Taub, B. New Study Reveals How Childhood Trauma Messes Up The Brain (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office No Child Left Behind Act: Assistance from Education Could Help States Better Measure Progress of Students with Limited English Proficiency; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, A. Impact of the Child and Family Services Improvement Act of 2006 on monthly caseworker visits to children in Los Angeles County on California’s foster care system. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M. New York Times 2017, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSynlett
ISSN (print)0936-5214

Other styles