How to format your references using the Annals of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martienssen R. Molecular biology. Small RNA makes its move. Science. 2010;328(5980):834-835.
A journal article with 2 authors
Durst AC, Girvin SM. Physics. Cooking a two-dimensional electron gas with microwaves. Science. 2004;304(5678):1752-1753.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weston CR, Lambright DG, Davis RJ. Signal transduction. MAP kinase signaling specificity. Science. 2002;296(5577):2345-2347.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sakaguchi H, Matsumura H, Gong H, Abouelwafa AM. Direct visualization of the formation of single-molecule conjugated copolymers. Science. 2005;310(5750):1002-1006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiske JR, Fiske CA. The Big Book of Benefit Auctions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Moser H, Römbke J, eds. Ecotoxicological Characterization of Waste: Results and Experiences of an International Ring Test. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim BW, Kim BG. Exclusive Region Based Scheduling for MB-OFDM UWB Using Hidden Pilot Sequences. In: Park JJ (jong H, Zomaya A, Jeong HY, Obaidat M, eds. Frontier and Innovation in Future Computing and Communications. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer Netherlands; 2014:29-35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Print Your Own Dinosaur! IFLScience. Published June 11, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improving COBOL Application Can Recover Significant Computer Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sink RC. Exploring a High School Community Relations and Parent Involvement Program. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times. March 6, 1994:1314.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)0196-0644
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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