How to format your references using the Annals of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldberg DE. Parasitology. When the host is smarter than the parasite. Science. 2002;296(5567):482-483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long M, Thornton K. Gene duplication and evolution. Science. 2001;293(5535):1551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huey DJ, Hu JC, Athanasiou KA. Unlike bone, cartilage regeneration remains elusive. Science. 2012;338(6109):917-921.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tschauner O, Huang S, Greenberg E, et al. Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle. Science. 2018;359(6380):1136-1139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riches J. Galatians Through the Centuries. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Luderer B. Mathematical Formulas for Economists. (Nollau V, Vetters K, eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Gillispie CC, Pisano R. The Carnot Approach and the Mechanics of Work and Power, 1803–1829. In: Pisano R, ed. Lazare and Sadi Carnot: A Scientific and Filial Relationship. History of Mechanism and Machine Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014:87-105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. Most Clinical Trial Data In China Is Fabricated, Government Report Finds. IFLScience. Published October 3, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. United States Interests and Activities in Nepal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang B. An Embedded Method for Near-Wellbore Streamline Simulation. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Story L. Seeking Business, States Loosen Insurance Rules. New York Times. May 9, 2011:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)0196-0644
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles