How to format your references using the Annals of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pachauri RK. India pushes for common responsibility. Nature. 2009;461(7267):1054.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berke JD, Eichenbaum HB. Drug addiction and the hippocampus. Science. 2001;294(5545):1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Katz RF, Spiegelman M, Holtzman B. The dynamics of melt and shear localization in partially molten aggregates. Nature. 2006;442(7103):676-679.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stracker TH, Morales M, Couto SS, Hussein H, Petrini JHJ. The carboxy terminus of NBS1 is required for induction of apoptosis by the MRE11 complex. Nature. 2007;447(7141):218-221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rigby KA. Aircraft Systems Integration of Air-Launched Weapons. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Broadbent J, Brockman V, eds. East Asian Social Movements: Power, Protest, and Change in a Dynamic Region. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Khovratovich D. Two Attacks on RadioGatún. In: Chowdhury DR, Rijmen V, Das A, eds. Progress in Cryptology - INDOCRYPT 2008: 9th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Kharagpur, India, December 14-17, 2008. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2008:53-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Evans K. When It Comes To Science, Liberals And Conservatives Agree Dinosaurs Are Awesome But That’s About It. IFLScience. Published April 4, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Medium Launch Transition Strategy Leverages Ongoing Investments but Is Not Without Risk. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holloway LR. Synthesis and investigation of novel dinitrosyl-Iron complexes of chelated Bis-phosphine ligands: Potential nitric oxide delivery compounds. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall A, White R. Gunman Fires at Moving S.U.V. in Queens, Killing One and Wounding Three Others. New York Times. January 4, 2014:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)0196-0644
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles