How to format your references using the Annals of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Alexander RM. Evolution. Enhanced: A rodent as big as a buffalo. Science. 2003;301(5640):1678-1679.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Philpotts AR, Dickson LD. The formation of plagioclase chains during convective transfer in basaltic magma. Nature. 2000;406(6791):59-61.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005;437(7063):1257-1263.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Jiang YJ, Aerne BL, Smithers L, Haddon C, Ish-Horowicz D, Lewis J. Notch signalling and the synchronization of the somite segmentation clock. Nature. 2000;408(6811):475-479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Overhauser A. Anomalous Effects in Simple Metals. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Verhezen P, Williamson I, Crosby M, Soebagjo N, eds. Doing Business in ASEAN Markets: Leadership Challenges and Governance Solutions across Asian Borders. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Kulić ML, Buzdin AI. Coexistence of Singlet Superconductivity and Magnetic Order in Bulk Magnetic Superconductors and SF Heterostructures. In: Bennemann KH, Ketterson JB, eds. Superconductivity: Conventional and Unconventional Superconductors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008:163-200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Trials A Step Forward For Medicinal Cannabis But What Comes Next? IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/trials-step-forward-medicinal-cannabis-what-comes-next-0/. Published October 27, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Gaps in Parents’ and Students’ Knowledge of School Costs and Federal Aid. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bell J. A phenomenological study of African American GS-13 to GS-15 managers within the federal government. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Lichtblau E. Health Network Charged in $1 Billion Fraud Case. New York Times. July 23, 2016:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)0196-0644
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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