How to format your references using the Annals of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hannon GJ. RNA interference. Nature. 2002;418(6894):244-251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff EW, British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. Ocean science. Whither Antarctic sea ice? Science. 2003;302(5648):1164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Risk JM, Macknight RC, Day CL. FCA does not bind abscisic acid. Nature. 2008;456(7223):E5-6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bryant MJ, Hammond KA, Bocian KM, Rettig MF, Miller CA, Cardullo RA. Assessment. School performance will fail to meet legislated benchmarks. Science. 2008;321(5897):1781-1782.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf T. Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Vieira R, Quaresma P, Nunes M das GV, Mamede NJ, Oliveira C, Dias MC, eds. Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language: 7th International Workshop, PROPOR 2006, Itatiaia, Brazil, May 13-17, 2006. Proceedings. Vol 3960. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Benati L, Lubik TA. The Time-Varying Beveridge Curve. In: Schleer-van Gellecom F, ed. Advances in Non-Linear Economic Modeling: Theory and Applications. Dynamic Modeling and Econometrics in Economics and Finance. Springer; 2014:167-204.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Interior of Giant Planets Reconstructed By Blasting Diamonds With Lasers. IFLScience. Published July 21, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Problems Affecting Operations at the St. Louis Postal Data Center. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCain AK. Influence of Market Setting and Time of Purchase on Counts of Aerobic Bacteria, Escherichia Coli, and Coliform and Prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in Beef, Pork, and Chicken in Vietnam. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Madonna Redesigned. New York Times. February 20, 2011:ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)0196-0644
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles