How to format your references using the Journal of Computers in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computers in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2004). Retraction signals end of cell-biology debate. Nature, 427(6975), 574.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lemons, D., & McGinnis, W. (2006). Genomic evolution of Hox gene clusters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5795), 1918–1922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rohr, R. P., Saavedra, S., & Bascompte, J. (2014). Ecological networks. On the structural stability of mutualistic systems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6195), 1253497.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Alford, M., Blaschke, D., Drago, A., Klähn, T., Pagliara, G., & Schaffner-Bielich, J. (2007). Astrophysics: quark matter in compact stars? Nature, 445(7125), E7-8; discussion E8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ledolter, J. (2013). Data Mining and Business Analytics with R. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Andersson, Å. E., Pettersson, L., & Strömquist, U. (Eds.). (2007). European Metropolitan Housing Markets. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gabbay, D. M., & Schlechta, K. (2011). Monotone and Antitone Semantic and Syntactic Interpolation. In K. Schlechta (Ed.), Conditionals and Modularity in General Logics (pp. 113–151). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computers in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 9). “FriendsOfScience” Organization Do Not Fucking Love Science. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Student Loans: Effect of Including Certain Types of Loans in Calculating Schools’ Default Rates (No. HEHS-98-135R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ennaco, W. A. (2014). Mastering morphosyntax: A pre-experimental study on the effectiveness of a parent-training program for preschoolaged children with specific language impairment (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Davenport, C. (2017, May 26). World Leaders Increase Pressure on Trump to Stay in the Paris Climate Deal. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Check 2004; Lemons and McGinnis 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lemons and McGinnis 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Alford et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computers in Education
AbbreviationJ. Comput. Educ.
ISSN (print)2197-9987
ISSN (online)2197-9995

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