How to format your references using the Journal of Computers in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computers in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duffy, T. S. (2011). Earth science: probing the core’s light elements. Nature, 479(7374), 480–481.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirts, M., & Pande, V. S. (2000). COMPUTING: Screen Savers of the World Unite! Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1903–1904.
A journal article with 3 authors
Religa, T. L., Sprangers, R., & Kay, L. E. (2010). Dynamic regulation of archaeal proteasome gate opening as studied by TROSY NMR. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5974), 98–102.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Polishchuk, I., Bracha, A. A., Bloch, L., Levy, D., Kozachkevich, S., Etinger-Geller, Y., et al. (2017). Coherently aligned nanoparticles within a biogenic single crystal: A biological prestressing strategy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 358(6368), 1294–1298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beckers, B., & Beckers, P. (2014). Reconciliation of Geometry and Perception in Radiation Physics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gallego, M., & Schofield, N. (Eds.). (2016). The Political Economy of Social Choices. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mokhtari, M., & Martaj, N. (2012). Chapitre 4 Modélisation physique par le langage Simscape. In N. Martaj (Ed.), Electronique Appliquée, Electromécanique sous Simscape & SimPowerSystems (Matlab/Simulink) (pp. 295–325). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computers in Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, May 5). How To See Tonight’s Peak Of The Eta Aquariid Meteor Shower. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Homeland Security: Information Technology Funding and Associated Management Issues (No. GAO-03-250). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Echols, K. I. (2017). Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith, M., & Kovaleski, S. F. (2017, June 6). For Officers After a Shooting, Unseen ‘Grieving.’ New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Niiler 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Rauchfuss 2007; Zaanen 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shirts and Pande 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Roy et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computers in Education
AbbreviationJ. Comput. Educ.
ISSN (print)2197-9987
ISSN (online)2197-9995

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