How to format your references using the Journal of Computers in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computers in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Massy, B. (2014). Human genetics. Hidden features of human hotspots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6211), 808–809.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baumann, P., & Cech, T. R. (2001). Pot1, the putative telomere end-binding protein in fission yeast and humans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5519), 1171–1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Quax, R., Kandhai, D., & Sloot, P. M. A. (2013). Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series. Scientific reports, 3, 1898.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vasbinder, J. W., Andersson, B., Arthur, W. B., Boasson, M., de Boer, R., Changeux, J. P., et al. (2010). Transdisciplinary EU science institute needs funds urgently. Nature, 463(7283), 876.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., & Soininen, J. (2013). Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Khalil, I., Neuhold, E., Tjoa, A. M., Xu, L. D., & You, I. (Eds.). (2015). Information and Communication Technology: Third IFIP TC 5/8 International Conference, ICT-EurAsia 2015, and 9th IFIP WG 8.9 Working Conference, CONFENIS 2015, Held as Part of WCC 2015, Daejeon, Korea, October 4-7, 2015, Proceedings (Vol. 9357). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Asakawa, Y., Ludwiczuk, A., & Nagashima, F. (2013). Chemical Constituents of Bryophyta. In A. Ludwiczuk & F. Nagashima (Eds.), Chemical Constituents of Bryophytes: Bio- and Chemical Diversity, Biological Activity, and Chemosystematics (pp. 563–605). Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computers in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 16). Philae Lander Runs Out Of Battery And Enters Deep Sleep. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Federal Student Aid: Recent Changes to Eligibility Requirements and Additional Efforts to Promote Awarness Could Increase Academic Competitiveness and SMART Grant Participation (No. GAO-09-343). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burgner, J. (2010). Bullying prevention: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M., & Victor, D. (2017, May 23). Fox News Retracts Theory On Killing of D.N.C. Aide. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Massy 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Baumann and Cech 2001; de Massy 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baumann and Cech 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Vasbinder et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computers in Education
AbbreviationJ. Comput. Educ.
ISSN (print)2197-9987
ISSN (online)2197-9995

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