How to format your references using the Annals of Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles, S. Warriors, levelers, and the role of conflict in human social evolution. Science 336:876–879, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bauer, J., and M. Prenzel. Science education. European teacher training reforms. Science 336:1642–1643, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mumby, P. J., A. Hastings, and H. J. Edwards. Thresholds and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs. Nature 450:98–101, 2007.
A journal article with 30 or more authors
Ohta, K., S. Onoda, K. Hirose, R. Sinmyo, K. Shimizu, N. Sata, Y. Ohishi, and A. Yasuhara. The electrical conductivity of post-perovskite in Earth’s D’’ layer. Science 320:89–91, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton, G. Wastewater Microbiology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Multiwavelength Approach to Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: A Second Workshop on the Nature of the High-Energy Unidentified Sources. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005, XVI, 439 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramnath, S., and B. Dathan. Language Features for Object-Oriented Implementation. In: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, edited by S. Ramnath, and B. Dathan. London: Springer, 2011, pp. 80–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Leaked Publication Suggests BICEP2 Big Bang Discovery Was Wrong. , <;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Internet of Things: Communities Deploy Projects by Combining Federal Support with Other Funds and Expertise. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horvath, C. P. Comparison of waste heat driven and electrically driven cooling systems for a high ambient temperature, off-grid application. , 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. Sandwiches From an Heirloom. , 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationAnn. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0090-6964
ISSN (online)1573-9686
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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