How to format your references using the Annals of Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Slonczewski, J. Tuberculosis bacteria join UN. Nature 405:1001, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shlomai, A., and C. M. Rice. Virology. Getting rid of a persistent troublemaker to cure hepatitis. Science 343:1212–1213, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cardinale, B. J., M. A. Palmer, and S. L. Collins. Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation. Nature 415:426–429, 2002.
A journal article with 30 or more authors
Lazer, D. M. J., M. A. Baum, Y. Benkler, A. J. Berinsky, K. M. Greenhill, F. Menczer, M. J. Metzger, B. Nyhan, G. Pennycook, D. Rothschild, M. Schudson, S. A. Sloman, C. R. Sunstein, E. A. Thorson, D. J. Watts, and J. L. Zittrain. The science of fake news. Science 359:1094–1096, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furmston, M. Powell-Smith and Furmston’s Building Contract Casebook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
Howard, B. Intersections of Hirzebruch–Zagier Divisors and CM Cycles. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, VIII, 140p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Yuan, W., L. Hu, X. Cheng, H. Li, J. Chu, and Y. Sun. Improvement of an ID-Based Threshold Signcryption Scheme. In: Computer, Informatics, Cybernetics and Applications: Proceedings of the CICA 2011, edited by X. He, E. Hua, Y. Lin, and X. Liu. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S. A Rope Test Could Save Us From Monkey Diseases. , <>


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Inquiry Into Possible Computer Processing Problems in School Lunch Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, M. How Charter School Teachers Act on Perceived Autonomy: A Qualitative Study of Curricular Decisions. , 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. Where “You Have a Hole in One” Doesn’t Mean You Have a Cavity. , 2000.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationAnn. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0090-6964
ISSN (online)1573-9686
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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