How to format your references using the Annals of Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Binzel, R. P. Human spaceflight: Find asteroids to get to Mars. Nature 514:559–561, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pope, B. D., and D. M. Gilbert. Genetics: Up and down in Down’s syndrome. Nature 508:323–324, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vergoz, V., H. A. Schreurs, and A. R. Mercer. Queen pheromone blocks aversive learning in young worker bees. Science 317:384–386, 2007.
A journal article with 30 or more authors
Ke, A., K. Zhou, F. Ding, J. H. D. Cate, and J. A. Doudna. A conformational switch controls hepatitis delta virus ribozyme catalysis. Nature 429:201–205, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sears, R. W., and K. M. Chard. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Microfinance, Risk-taking Behaviour and Rural Livelihood. New Delhi: Springer India, 2014, XXIII, 185 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Cevikcan, E., and A. Ustundag. Decision Making for Determining the Implementation Level of RFID Projects. In: The Value of RFID: Benefits vs. Costs, edited by A. Ustundag. London: Springer, 2013, pp. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Why Study Evolution? , <>


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Observations on Improving Distribution of Death Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brecese, J. A. Out of Our Depth: Hyper-Extensionality and the Return of Three-Dimensional Media. , 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz, J., M. Fernandez, and A. Blinder. Deadly Storm Transforms Houston Streets Into Raging Rivers. , 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationAnn. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0090-6964
ISSN (online)1573-9686
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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