How to format your references using the Annals of Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham, S. Finding your way. Nature 425:209, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, J., and S. Gottesman. RNA. Riboswitch regulates RNA. Science 345:876–877, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poulsen, C. J., T. A. Ehlers, and N. Insel. Onset of convective rainfall during gradual late Miocene rise of the central Andes. Science 328:490–493, 2010.
A journal article with 30 or more authors
Zhang, J., Z. Jin, G.-Q. Sun, X.-D. Sun, Y.-M. Wang, and B. Huang. Determination of original infection source of H7N9 avian influenza by dynamical model. Sci. Rep. 4:4846, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minei, I., and J. Lucek. MPLS-Enabled Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Relations and Kleene Algebra in Computer Science: 10th International Conference on Relational Methods in Computer Science, and 5th International Conference on Applications of Kleene Algebra, RelMiCS/AKA 2008, Frauenwörth, Germany, April 7-11, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, X, 402 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Jochem, E. Fuel Cell Technologies. In: Improving the Efficiency of R&D and the Market Diffusion of Energy Technologies, edited by E. Jochem. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD, 2009, pp. 67–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. This Father’s Day, Be Grateful Your Dad Is A Human. , <>


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, Y. M. Federal Managers’ Use of Evidence (Performance Measurement Data and Evaluation Results): Are We There Yet? , 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. Hasidic Housing a Letdown. , 1998.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationAnn. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0090-6964
ISSN (online)1573-9686
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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