How to format your references using the Annals of Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watling, L. Deep-sea trawling must be banned. Nature 501:7, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider, R. A., and J. A. Helms. The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Science 299:565–568, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gore, J., H. Youk, and A. van Oudenaarden. Snowdrift game dynamics and facultative cheating in yeast. Nature 459:253–256, 2009.
A journal article with 30 or more authors
Chen, L., Q. Gu, X. Zhou, S. Lee, Y. Xia, and Z. Liu. New-concept batteries based on aqueous Li+/Na+ mixed-ion electrolytes. Sci. Rep. 3:1946, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubrey, S. B. The Profitable Hobby Farm. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: 6th Iberian Conference, IbPRIA 2013, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, June 5-7, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, XX, 900 p. 396 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Barrero, D. F., D. Camacho, and M. D. R-Moreno. A Framework for Agent-Based Evaluation of Genetic Algorithms. In: Intelligent Distributed Computing III: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2009, Ayia Napa, Cyprus,October 2009, edited by G. A. Papadopoulos, and C. Badica. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 31–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Ten Years After The De Menezes Killing, We’re No Better At Identifying Faces. , <>


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Aviation: DOT’s Efforts to Increase U.S. Airlines’ Access to International Markets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solari, S. A unified anatomical theory and computational model of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain and the introduction of DNA reco codes. , 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. The Musical ‘The Prom’ Is Coming to Broadway. , 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 5–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationAnn. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0090-6964
ISSN (online)1573-9686
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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