How to format your references using the Annals of Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mavilio, F. Gene therapies need new development models. Nature 490:7, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greaves, M., and C. C. Maley. Clonal evolution in cancer. Nature 481:306–313, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Constância, M., G. Kelsey, and W. Reik. Resourceful imprinting. Nature 432:53–57, 2004.
A journal article with 30 or more authors
Got, J.-L., V. Monteiller, J. Monteux, R. Hassani, and P. Okubo. Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes. Nature 451:453–456, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibrahim, M. A. Disturbance Analysis for Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
FM 2005: Formal Methods: International Symposium of Formal Methods Europe, Newcastle, UK, July 18-22, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, XIV, 558 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Akondi, K. B., and V. V. Lakshmi. Challenges and Prospects in Exploring Marine Microbial Diversity. In: Environment and Sustainable Development, edited by M. H. Fulekar, B. Pathak, and R. K. Kale. New Delhi: Springer India, 2014, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Davis, J. Deep-Sea Ghost Shark Caught On Camera For The First Time. , <>


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunities to Improve Planning for Solar Energy Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, J. The work expectations of individuals with developmental disabilities. , 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K. With City Passing By in a Blur, a Star Adds Yet Another Title. , 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationAnn. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0090-6964
ISSN (online)1573-9686
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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