How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DePinho, R. A. (2000). The age of cancer. Nature 408, 248–254.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steig, E. J., and Wolfe, A. P. (2008). Atmospheric science. Sprucing up Greenland. Science 320, 1595–1596.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dixon, E., Shapiro, A., and Lu, Z.-L. (2014). Scale-invariance in brightness illusions implicates object-level visual processing. Sci. Rep. 4, 3900.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Moon, S. H., Park, S. J., Hwang, Y. J., Lee, D.-K., Cho, Y., Kim, D.-W., et al. (2014). Printable, wide band-gap chalcopyrite thin films for power generating window applications. Sci. Rep. 4, 4408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau, J. Y. F. (2011). An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Takagi, T., Wang, G., Qin, Z., Jiang, S., and Yu, Y. eds. (2012). Provable Security: 6th International Conference, ProvSec 2012, Chengdu, China, September 26-28, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ajwani, D., and Meyerhenke, H. (2010). “Chapter 5. Realistic Computer Models,” in Algorithm Engineering: Bridging the Gap between Algorithm Theory and Practice Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. M. Müller-Hannemann and S. Schirra (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 194–236.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015). Photographer Captures Bee Peeing Mid-Flight. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). Problems in the Federal Funding of School Bus Driver Training Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hintz, L. (2015). Fighting for Us, Inside and Out: National Identity Contestation and Foreign Policy in Turkey.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001). 67 Dogs, Some Hot and Some Sly, Have Their Day. New York Times, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DePinho, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (DePinho, 2000; Steig and Wolfe, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steig and Wolfe, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Moon et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep Disorders
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

Other styles