How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bucksbaum, P. H. (2006). Chemistry. The first femtosecond in the life of a chemical reaction. Science 312, 373–374.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watanabe, N., and Mitchison, T. J. (2002). Single-molecule speckle analysis of actin filament turnover in lamellipodia. Science 295, 1083–1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polat, E. O., Balcı, O., and Kocabas, C. (2014). Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices. Sci. Rep. 4, 6484.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smith, A. D. M., Brown, C. J., Bulman, C. M., Fulton, E. A., Johnson, P., Kaplan, I. C., et al. (2011). Impacts of fishing low-trophic level species on marine ecosystems. Science 333, 1147–1150.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Budisa, N. (2005). Engineering the Genetic Code. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Villa, A. E. P., Duch, W., Érdi, P., Masulli, F., and Palm, G. eds. (2012). Artificial Neural Networks and Machine Learning – ICANN 2012: 22nd International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 11-14, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bandt, C., Groth, A., Marwan, N., Romano, M. C., Thiel, M., Rosenblum, M., et al. (2008). “Analysis of Bivariate Coupling by Means of Recurrence,” in Mathematical Methods in Signal Processing and Digital Image Analysis Understanding Complex Systems., eds. R. Dahlhaus, J. Kurths, P. Maass, and J. Timmer (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 153–182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). Japanese Company Wants To Create Artificial Meteors For The 2020 Tokyo Olympics. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004). Diploma Mills: Federal Employees Have Obtained Degrees from Diploma Mills and Other Unaccredited Schools, Some at Government Expense. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amini, B. (2015). Linear Matrix Inequality Method for Periodic Systems.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017). Is It Time for a New Prince Moment? New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bucksbaum, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Watanabe and Mitchison, 2002; Bucksbaum, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watanabe and Mitchison, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep Disorders
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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