How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Doren, M. (2011). Development. Determining sexual identity. Science 333, 829–830.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sorensen, E. J., and Sammis, G. M. (2004). Chemistry. A dash of proline makes things sweet. Science 305, 1725–1726.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wearn, O. R., Reuman, D. C., and Ewers, R. M. (2012). Extinction debt and windows of conservation opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 337, 228–232.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, T., Diemann, E., Li, H., Dress, A. W. M., and Müller, A. (2003). Self-assembly in aqueous solution of wheel-shaped Mo154 oxide clusters into vesicles. Nature 426, 59–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossi, R. J. (2006). Theorems, Corollaries, Lemmas, and Methods of Proof. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wang, D. H. ed. (2007). Molecular Sensors for Cardiovascular Homeostasis. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Amengual, E., Mas, A., and Mesquida, A. L. (2010). “Team SPICE: A SPICE-Based Teamwork Assessment Model,” in Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 17th European Conference, EuroSPI 2010, Grenoble, France, September 1-3, 2010. Proceedings Communications in Computer and Information Science., eds. A. Riel, R. O’Connor, S. Tichkiewitch, and R. Messnarz (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 37–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). How We Discovered ‘Impossible’ Material That Both Conducts Electrity – And Doesn’t. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Analysis of Replacing Existing DOA Computer System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arzaga, C. B. (2012). Homeless shelter program for the elderly in Los Angeles, California: A grant writing project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crane, A. T., Hay, G., and Larsen, P. T. (2011). Mortgage Market Due for Overhaul. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Van Doren, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Sorensen and Sammis, 2004; Van Doren, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sorensen and Sammis, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep Disorders
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

Other styles