How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meunier, B. (2002). Chemistry. Catalytic degradation of chlorinated phenols. Science 296, 270–271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Newman, J. R. S., and Keating, A. E. (2003). Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays. Science 300, 2097–2101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gridi-Papp, M., Rand, A. S., and Ryan, M. J. (2006). Animal communication: complex call production in the túngara frog. Nature 441, 38.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fillmore, C. M., Xu, C., Desai, P. T., Berry, J. M., Rowbotham, S. P., Lin, Y.-J., et al. (2018). Author Correction: EZH2 inhibition sensitizes BRG1 and EGFR mutant lung tumours to TopoII inhibitors. Nature 563, E27.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cortada, J. W. (2014). The Essential Manager. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dumont, R., and Chung, Y. eds. (2014). Nutrition in Pediatric Pulmonary Disease. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Guceac, I., and Serotila, I. (2014). “The Opportunity of Recognition of the Right to Water as a Fundamental Human Right,” in Management of Water Quality in Moldova Water Science and Technology Library., ed. G. Duca (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 61–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Scientists Discover New Type Of Whirling Blue Fire. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Bureau of Indian Education: Improving Interior’s Assistance Would Aid Tribal Groups Developing Academic Accountability Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sefrit, J. (2008). A study of the effectiveness of a school district’s mentoring /professional development plan for beginning teachers.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017). 6 Days. New York Times, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meunier, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Meunier, 2002; Newman and Keating, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Newman and Keating, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Fillmore et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep Disorders
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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