How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sleep Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowen, G. J. (2011). Ocean science. A faster water cycle. Science 332, 430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kobayashi, T., and Ganley, A. R. D. (2005). Recombination regulation by transcription-induced cohesin dissociation in rDNA repeats. Science 309, 1581–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sherwood, S. C., Bony, S., and Dufresne, J.-L. (2014). Spread in model climate sensitivity traced to atmospheric convective mixing. Nature 505, 37–42.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Aguilaniu, H., Gustafsson, L., Rigoulet, M., and Nyström, T. (2003). Asymmetric inheritance of oxidatively damaged proteins during cytokinesis. Science 299, 1751–1753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marvin, S. (2010). Dictionary of Scientific Principles. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pereira, F., Machado, P., Costa, E., and Cardoso, A. eds. (2015). Progress in Artificial Intelligence: 17th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, EPIA 2015, Coimbra, Portugal, September 8-11, 2015. Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cristea, S., Kuipers, J., and Beerenwinkel, N. (2016). “pathTiMEx: Joint Inference of Mutually Exclusive Cancer Pathways and Their Dependencies in Tumor Progression,” in Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 20th Annual Conference, RECOMB 2016, Santa Monica, CA, USA, April 17-21, 2016, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., ed. M. Singh (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sleep Disorders.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Archaeologists Discover Mayan Temple Has Two More Pyramids Inside It. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Freight Railroads: Updated Information on Rates and Other Industry Trends. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang, C.-C. (2013). Fate of bacterial and viral indicators in an advanced wastewater treatment plant.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2016). Scripted TV Shows Balloon, but Some Fear a Pop. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowen, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kobayashi and Ganley, 2005; Bowen, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kobayashi and Ganley, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Aguilaniu et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sleep Disorders
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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