How to format your references using the Annals of Applied Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Applied Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schreiber M.R. (2013) Astronomy. One good measure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340, 932–933.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wright K.P. Jr, Czeisler C.A. (2002) Absence of circadian phase resetting in response to bright light behind the knees. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297, 571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gao F., Ding Z., Meng S. (2013) Three-dimensional metal-intercalated covalent organic frameworks for near-ambient energy storage. Scientific reports, 3, 1882.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Crichton W.A., Mezouar M., Grande T., Stølen S., Grzechnik A. (2001) Breakdown of intermediate-range order in liquid GeSe(2) at high pressure. Nature, 414, 622–625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonilla L.L., Teitsworth S.W. (2010) Nonlinear Wave Methods for Charge Transport. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hömberg D., Tröltzsch F. eds. (2013) System Modeling and Optimization: 25th IFIP TC 7 Conference, CSMO 2011, Berlin, Germany, September 12-16, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim Y.-S., Lee H.-J. (2015) Shoulder Arthroscopic Portals: Ordinary Versus Unconventional, In Sports Injuries to the Shoulder and Elbow, pp. 45–49. Ed J.-Y. Park. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Applied Biology.

Blog post
Davis J. (2015) Doubt Cast On Research Claiming Chimps Can Learn New “Accents.” IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) Software Tools and Techniques. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wicks C.F. (2017) The Self-Concept of Students in Remediation in a Rural Community College in Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. (1994) IN GAZA, PEACE MEETS PATHOLOGY. New York Times, 656.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schreiber, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Schreiber, 2013; Wright & Czeisler, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wright & Czeisler, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Crichton et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Applied Biology
AbbreviationAnn. Appl. Biol.
ISSN (print)0003-4746
ISSN (online)1744-7348
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

Other styles