How to format your references using the Annals of Applied Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Applied Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeMarco B. (2010) Physics. An atomic view of quantum phase transitions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329, 523–524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sung S., Amasino R.M. (2004) Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3. Nature, 427, 159–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma L., Teruya-Feldstein J., Weinberg R.A. (2007) Tumour invasion and metastasis initiated by microRNA-10b in breast cancer. Nature, 449, 682–688.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nemergut M.E., Mizzen C.A., Stukenberg T., Allis C.D., Macara I.G. (2001) Chromatin docking and exchange activity enhancement of RCC1 by histones H2A and H2B. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292, 1540–1543.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldi P., Frasconi P., Smyth P. (2002) Modeling the Internet and the Web: Probabilistic Methods and Algorithms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Farzanegan M.R., Alaedini P. eds. (2016) Economic Welfare and Inequality in Iran: Developments since the Revolution. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Pan I., Das S. (2013) Fractional Order Controller Tuning Using Swarm and Evolutionary Algorithms, In Intelligent Fractional Order Systems and Control: An Introduction, pp. 87–131. Ed S. Das. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Applied Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E. (2014) Video Describes Process of Bagging and Tagging Sharks. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Strategic Air Command: KC-135A Crash and the Need for SAC Air Show Regulations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens B.S. (2017) Understanding CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Activation by CXC Chemokine Ligand 12. Doctoral dissertation. La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Pilon M. (2012) Jewish School Falls in Final. New York Times, SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeMarco, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (DeMarco, 2010; Sung & Amasino, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sung & Amasino, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Nemergut et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Applied Biology
AbbreviationAnn. Appl. Biol.
ISSN (print)0003-4746
ISSN (online)1744-7348
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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