How to format your references using the Annals of Applied Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Applied Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. (2003) Food for thought. Nature, 423, 665.
A journal article with 2 authors
McKerracher L., Ellezam B. (2002) Development. Putting the brakes on regeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296, 1819–1820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arlettaz R., Jones G., Racey P.A. (2001) Effect of acoustic clutter on prey detection by bats. Nature, 414, 742–745.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Noda S., Yokoyama M., Imada M., Chutinan A., Mochizuki M. (2001) Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293, 1123–1125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samonas M. (2015) Financial Forecasting, Analysis, and Modelling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vaezi M.F. ed. (2016) Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nečasová Š., Kračmar S. (2016) Fundamental Solution of the Stationary Problem, In Navier-Stokes Flow Around a Rotating Obstacle: Mathematical Analysis of its Asymptotic Behavior, pp. 25–38. Ed S. Kracmar. Paris: Atlantis Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Applied Biology.

Blog post
Hale T. (2015) An Enormous Blue Whale Has Washed Up On The Coast Of Oregon. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Oversight of Federally Sponsored Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moble B. (2010) Fundamental understanding of the cycloidal-rotor concept for micro air vehicle applications. Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. (2017) Everyone’s Got a Different Dream. New York Times, RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2003; McKerracher & Ellezam, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McKerracher & Ellezam, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Noda et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Applied Biology
AbbreviationAnn. Appl. Biol.
ISSN (print)0003-4746
ISSN (online)1744-7348
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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