How to format your references using the Annals of Applied Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Applied Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hynek B.M. (2004) Implications for hydrologic processes on Mars from extensive bedrock outcrops throughout Terra Meridiani. Nature, 431, 156–159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Relling M.V., Evans W.E. (2015) Pharmacogenomics in the clinic. Nature, 526, 343–350.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen F., Tillberg P.W., Boyden E.S. (2015) Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347, 543–548.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Akahane Y., Asano T., Song B.-S., Noda S. (2003) High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Nature, 425, 944–947.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eligehausen R., Mallée R., Silva J.F. (2012) Anchorage in Concrete Construction. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Stillwell J. (2005) The Four Pillars of Geometry Eds S. Axler and K. A. Ribet. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ito M. (2016) Cardion.spec: An Approach to Improve the Requirements Specification Written in the Natural Language Through the Formal Method, In Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 23rd European Conference, EuroSPI 2016, Graz, Austria, September 14-16, 2016, Proceedings, pp. 58–69. Eds C. Kreiner, R. V. O’Connor, A. Poth, and R. Messnarz. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Applied Biology.

Blog post
Fang J. (2014) Make Your Own Graphene With Just a Blender. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Internet Infrastructure: DHS Faces Challenges in Developing a Joint Public/Private Recovery Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldberg D.S. (2010) Poly (amido amine) dendrimers: Transepithelial transport mechanisms and applications in oral drug delivery. Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S. (2017) Well, What Should Hillary Clinton Do? New York Times, SR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hynek, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hynek, 2004; Relling & Evans, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Relling & Evans, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Akahane et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Applied Biology
AbbreviationAnn. Appl. Biol.
ISSN (print)0003-4746
ISSN (online)1744-7348
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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