How to format your references using the Animals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. Northern Exposure for EMBL. Nature 2007, 447, 504.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beg, A.A.; Scheiffele, P. Neuroscience. SUMO Wrestles the Synapse. Science 2006, 311, 962–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dudovich, N.; Oron, D.; Silberberg, Y. Single-Pulse Coherently Controlled Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy and Microscopy. Nature 2002, 418, 512–514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, B.-H.; Wißmann, S.; Hu, X.-M.; Zhang, C.; Huang, Y.-F.; Li, C.-F.; Guo, G.-C.; Karlsson, A.; Piilo, J.; Breuer, H.-P. Locality and Universality of Quantum Memory Effects. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6327.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nordenström, J. The Hunt for the Parathyroids; John Wiley & Sons: Oxford, 2012; ISBN 9781118343371.
An edited book
Fault Analysis in Cryptography; Joye, M., Tunstall, M., Eds.; Information Security and Cryptography; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642296550.
A chapter in an edited book
Samson, M.; Langevin, L. Le Rayonnement Des Droits de La Personne En Droit Privé Québécois: Que de Chemin Parcouru… Mais Que de Chemin à Parcourir! In The Influence of Human Rights and Basic Rights in Private Law; Trstenjak, V., Weingerl, P., Eds.; Ius Comparatum - Global Studies in Comparative Law; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 143–186 ISBN 9783319253350.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animals.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Seals Caught Having Sex With Penguins Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Leadership and Partnerships Result in Limited Rollover Disruptions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rountree, B.L. Theory and Practice of Dynamic Voltage /Frequency Scaling in the High Performance Computing Environment. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M.; Steel, E. After Ailes’s Departure, a Stony Silence at Fox. New York Times 2016, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimals
AbbreviationAnimals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-2615

Other styles