How to format your references using the Animals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
ten Kate, K. Global genetic resources. Science and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Science 2002, 295, 2371–2372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan, A.J.; Christensen, P.R. Coils and polygonal crust in the Athabasca Valles region, Mars, as evidence for a volcanic history. Science 2012, 336, 449–452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plata, G.; Henry, C.S.; Vitkup, D. Long-term phenotypic evolution of bacteria. Nature 2015, 517, 369–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nelson, C.; Goto, S.; Lund, K.; Hung, W.; Sadowski, I. Srb10/Cdk8 regulates yeast filamentous growth by phosphorylating the transcription factor Ste12. Nature 2003, 421, 187–190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huzurbazar, A.V. Flowgraph Models for Multistate Time-to-Event Data: Huzurbazar/Flowgraph Models; Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2004; ISBN 9780471686569.
An edited book
Transactions on Computational Intelligence XIII; Nguyen, N.-T., Le-Thi, H.A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; Vol. 8342; ISBN 9783642544545.
A chapter in an edited book
Grimm, F.; Fets, L.; Anastasiou, D. Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) to Study Metabolism in Cultured Cells. In Tumor Microenvironment: Study Protocols; Koumenis, C., Coussens, L.M., Giaccia, A., Hammond, E., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 59–88 ISBN 9783319266640.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animals.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. Someone Has Created The World’s First Adult “Service” Droid And It’s Terrifying Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office New York Stock Exchange: Capability of Automated Systems To Identify Program Trading; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coughenour, B.M. Photovoltaic concentrator optical system design: Solar energy engineering from physics to field. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M. An Athlete of His Time, Painted as a Top Villain. New York Times 2017, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimals
AbbreviationAnimals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-2615

Other styles