How to format your references using the Animals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schaetz, T. Quantum Physics: Entanglement beyond Identical Ions. Nature 2015, 528, 337–338.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwefel, H.G.L.; Türeci, H.E. Optics. A Chaotic Approach Clears up Imaging. Science 2015, 348, 189–190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Obata, Y.; Kono, T.; Hatada, I. Gene Silencing: Maturation of Mouse Fetal Germ Cells in Vitro. Nature 2002, 418, 497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guo, L.; Liang, P.; Zhou, X.; Gao, X. Novel Mutations and Mutation Combinations of Ryanodine Receptor in a Chlorantraniliprole Resistant Population of Plutella Xylostella (L.). Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6924.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wind, Y.J.; Hays, C.F. Beyond Advertising; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119170457.
An edited book
Manufacturing Execution Systems — MES; Kletti, J., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; ISBN 9783540497431.
A chapter in an edited book
Fermüller, C.G. Combining Fuzziness and Context Sensitivity in Game Based Models of Vague Quantification. In Integrated Uncertainty in Knowledge Modelling and Decision Making: 4th International Symposium, IUKM 2015, Nha Trang, Vietnam, October 15-17, 2015, Proceedings; Huynh, V.-N., Inuiguchi, M., Demoeux, T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 19–31 ISBN 9783319251349.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animals.

Blog post
Fang, J. 17-Million-Year-Old Whale Fossil Gives Hints To The Dawn Of Humanity Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: Federal Action Needed to Strengthen Domestic Air Cargo Security; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packer-Kinlaw, D. Anxious Journeys: Past, Present, and Construction of Identity in American Travel Writing. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Moldova: Opposition Politician Missing. New York Times 2002, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimals
AbbreviationAnimals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-2615

Other styles