How to format your references using the Animals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kenyon, C.J. The genetics of ageing. Nature 2010, 464, 504–512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parish, M.M.; Littlewood, P.B. Non-saturating magnetoresistance in heavily disordered semiconductors. Nature 2003, 426, 162–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lampard, G.R.; Macalister, C.A.; Bergmann, D.C. Arabidopsis stomatal initiation is controlled by MAPK-mediated regulation of the bHLH SPEECHLESS. Science 2008, 322, 1113–1116.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Klembt, S.; Harder, T.H.; Egorov, O.A.; Winkler, K.; Ge, R.; Bandres, M.A.; Emmerling, M.; Worschech, L.; Liew, T.C.H.; Segev, M.; et al. Exciton-polariton topological insulator. Nature 2018, 562, 552–556.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arduin, P.-E.; Grundstein, M.; Rosenthal-Sabroux, C. Information and Knowledge System; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119116165.
An edited book
Logic-Based Program Synthesis and Transformation: 24th International Symposium, LOPSTR 2014, Canterbury, UK, September 9-11, 2014. Revised Selected Papers; Proietti, M., Seki, H., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 8981; ISBN 9783319178219.
A chapter in an edited book
Koziel, S.; Ogurtsov, S. Low-Fidelity Antenna Models. In Antenna Design by Simulation-Driven Optimization; Ogurtsov, S., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Optimization; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 45–52 ISBN 9783319043661.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animals.

Blog post
Andrew, D. First Working Eggs Made From Stem Cells Points To Fertility Breakthrough (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Implementation of the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chima-Okereke, O. The distinct VPS35 mutant, env1, exhibits unique protein mislocalization and processing phenotype. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. Seeking Stars, Finding Creationism. New York Times 2014, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimals
AbbreviationAnimals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-2615

Other styles