How to format your references using the Animals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis, J. Environmental Science. Climate Sensors Dropped from U.S. Weather Satellite Package. Science 2006, 312, 1580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns, J.A.; Cuzzi, J.N. Planetary Science. Our Local Astrophysical Laboratory. Science 2006, 312, 1753–1755.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lawrence, T.; Hageman, T.; Balkwill, F. Cancer. Sex, Cytokines, and Cancer. Science 2007, 317, 51–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Toh, R.J.; Peng, W.K.; Han, J.; Pumera, M. Direct in Vivo Electrochemical Detection of Haemoglobin in Red Blood Cells. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Del Pico, W.J. Electrical Estimating Methods; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118963234.
An edited book
Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer; Hiyama, K., Ed.; Cancer Drug Discovery and Development; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781603273060.
A chapter in an edited book
Lagerlund, H. The Unity of the Soul and Contrary Appetites in Medieval Philosophy. In The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology; Lennon, T.M., Stainton, R.J., Eds.; Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; pp. 75–91 ISBN 9781402068928.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animals.

Blog post
Evans, K. Marriages Fail When Couples Get Stuck In These Two Toxic Relationship Dynamics (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Mass Transit Grants: Development Time Frames for Selected UMTA Projects; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheimer, C. Use of Bibliotherapy as an Adjunctive Therapy with Bereaved Children: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wihbey, J.; Beaudet, M. Financial Disclosure, Wrapped in Secrecy. New York Times 2016, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimals
AbbreviationAnimals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-2615

Other styles