How to format your references using the Progress in Earth and Planetary Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Knijff P. Genetics. How carrion and hooded crows defeat Linnaeus’s curse. Science. 2014 Jun 20;344(6190):1345–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Madix RJ, Friend CM. Interfacial chemistry: gold’s enigmatic surface. Nature. 2011 Nov 23;479(7374):482–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu G, Golding GB, Dean AM. The selective cause of an ancient adaptation. Science. 2005 Feb 25;307(5713):1279–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Suarez A, Ueno T, Huebner R, McCaffery JM, Inoue T. Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) family members bend membranes in cells. Sci. Rep. 2014 May 6;4:4693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singer B, Fedorinchik G. Investment Leadership and Portfolio Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Fairweather A, editor. Virtue Epistemology Naturalized: Bridges Between Virtue Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Benson DJ, Iyengar S, Krause H. Friday. In: Iyengar S, Krause H, editors. Representations of Finite Groups: Local Cohomology and Support. Basel: Springer; 2012. p. 79–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science.

Blog post
Hale T. Brazilian City Suffers Spate Of Vampire Bat Attacks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loans: Legislative and Regulatory Changes Needed To Reduce Default Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Sep. Report No.: HRD-87-76.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Couch HC. Providers’ Acceptance of Smartphone Applications as a Supportive Strategy for Adolescent Asthma [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanc J. Straight From a Boomer’s Attic. New York Times. 2017 Mar 4;F8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Knijff 2014).
This sentence cites two references (de Knijff 2014; Madix and Friend 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Madix and Friend 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Suarez et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Earth and Planetary Science
AbbreviationProg. Earth Planet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2197-4284

Other styles