How to format your references using the Progress in Earth and Planetary Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robel A. Climate science: The long future of Antarctic melting. Nature. 2015 Oct 15;526(7573):327–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharp WD, Clague DA. 50-Ma initiation of Hawaiian-Emperor bend records major change in Pacific plate motion. Science. 2006 Sep 1;313(5791):1281–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burlaga LF, Ness NF, Stone EC. Magnetic field observations as Voyager 1 entered the heliosheath depletion region. Science. 2013 Jul 12;341(6142):147–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Holmgren M, Wagg J, Bezanilla F, Rakowski RF, De Weer P, Gadsby DC. Three distinct and sequential steps in the release of sodium ions by the Na+/K+-ATPase. Nature. 2000 Feb 24;403(6772):898–901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collings S. Interpretation and Application of UK GAAP. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Meier MAR, Webster DC, editors. Polymer Libraries. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Dawson DA, Greven A. A Basic Tool: Dual Representations. In: Greven A, editor. Spatial Fleming-Viot Models with Selection and Mutation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 105–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. Exploiting Bacteria to Produce “Living Materials.” IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Technology Transfer Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Sep. Report No.: T-RCED-97-230.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knight M. Technological Advancement in Conflict Assessment: A Case Study of the Fund for Peace’s Universal Network of Local Knowledge in Liberia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Presents Hard Line To Bring In North Carolina. New York Times. 1992 Oct 27;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robel 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Robel 2015; Sharp and Clague 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharp and Clague 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Holmgren et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Earth and Planetary Science
AbbreviationProg. Earth Planet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2197-4284

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