How to format your references using the Progress in Earth and Planetary Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heyde M. Materials Science. Structure and motion of a 2D glass. Science. 2013 Oct 11;342(6155):201–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teng MWL, Smyth MJ. Cancer. Can cancer trigger autoimmunity? Science. 2014 Jan 10;343(6167):147–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kareiva P, Chang A, Marvier M. Environmental economics. Development and conservation goals in World Bank projects. Science. 2008 Sep 19;321(5896):1638–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tyzio R, Cossart R, Khalilov I, Minlebaev M, Hübner CA, Represa A, et al. Maternal oxytocin triggers a transient inhibitory switch in GABA signaling in the fetal brain during delivery. Science. 2006 Dec 15;314(5806):1788–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad A. Wireless and Mobile Data Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Rovenský J, Payer J, editors. Dictionary of Rheumatology. Vienna: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Carsrud AL, Brännback M. Case Two: Gazi Family Constitution – Managing the Family in a Family Firm. In: Brännback M, editor. Family Firms in Transition: Case Studies on Succession, Inheritance, and Governance. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 15–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science.

Blog post
Hamilton K. This Is What Happens If You Wear Magnetic Items In An MRI Machine. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on the Energy Information Administration’s Financial Reporting System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Jan. Report No.: RCED-85-51.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sakalli Gumus S. Preparing teachers for partnering with families: Examining the impact of a specifically designed curriculum on professionals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Fordham’s Big 3 Make Trip North Worthwhile. New York Times. 2002 Oct 26;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heyde 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Heyde 2013; Teng and Smyth 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teng and Smyth 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Tyzio et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Earth and Planetary Science
AbbreviationProg. Earth Planet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2197-4284

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