How to format your references using the Progress in Earth and Planetary Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Desplan C. Time to pick the fly’s brain. Nature. 2007 Nov 8;450(7167):173.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collinge J, Clarke AR. A general model of prion strains and their pathogenicity. Science. 2007 Nov 9;318(5852):930–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poon VY, Klassen MP, Shen K. UNC-6/netrin and its receptor UNC-5 locally exclude presynaptic components from dendrites. Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):669–73.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Convertino M, Foran CM, Keisler JM, Scarlett L, LoSchiavo A, Kiker GA, et al. Enhanced adaptive management: integrating decision analysis, scenario analysis and environmental modeling for the Everglades. Sci. Rep. 2013 Oct 11;3:2922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Modarres M, Amiri M, Jackson C. Probabilistic Physics of Failure Approach to Reliability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Ratto C, Doglietto GB, Lowry AC, Påhlman L, Romano G, editors. Fecal Incontinence: Diagnosis and Treatment. Milano: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Dezhamkhooy M, Yazdi LP, Garazhian O. All Our Findings Are Under Their Boots! The Monologue of Violence in Iranian Archaeology. In: González-Ruibal A, Moshenska G, editors. Ethics and the Archaeology of Violence. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. p. 51–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science.

Blog post
Luntz S. Comet’s Structure Is Like Deep-Fried Ice Cream [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health Care: Continued Leadership Needed to Define and Implement Information Technology Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Sep. Report No.: GAO-05-1054T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ivy R. Regional Subsurface Investigation of the Uppermost Cretaceous of Northern Louisiana [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Home Is a Place to Hang His Hats. New York Times. 2010 Jul 29;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Desplan 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Collinge and Clarke 2007; Desplan 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Collinge and Clarke 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Convertino et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Earth and Planetary Science
AbbreviationProg. Earth Planet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2197-4284

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