How to format your references using the Progress in Earth and Planetary Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenberg R. Chemistry. Rethinking water splitting. Science. 2009 Apr 3;324(5923):44–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clutton-Brock T, Sheldon BC. Ecology. The Seven Ages of Pan. Science. 2010 Mar 5;327(5970):1207–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mason N, Biercuk MJ, Marcus CM. Local gate control of a carbon nanotube double quantum dot. Science. 2004 Jan 30;303(5658):655–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schopf JW, Kudryavtsev AB, Agresti DG, Wdowiak TJ, Czaja AD. Laser--Raman imagery of Earth’s earliest fossils. Nature. 2002 Mar 7;416(6876):73–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Billington DP. Der Turm und die Brücke. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2013.
An edited book
Wilson JP, Tang CS-K, editors. Cross-Cultural Assessment of Psychological Trauma and PTSD. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Binley A, Kemna A. DC Resistivity and Induced Polarization Methods. In: Rubin Y, Hubbard SS, editors. Hydrogeophysics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 129–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Earth and Planetary Science.

Blog post
Fang J. Fossil Fuel Emissions Could Mess With Radiocarbon Dating [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Leasing Office Space: FAA’s Denver Solicitation May Have Unduly Restricted Competition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jun. Report No.: GGD-88-72BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Augspurger BA. Teacher Perceptions of Effective School Leadership Using Twenty-first Century Skills and Knowledge [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Season Over, the Rangers Are Left to Consider What Might Have Been. New York Times. 2017 May 10;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenberg 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Clutton-Brock and Sheldon 2010; Eisenberg 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clutton-Brock and Sheldon 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Schopf et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Earth and Planetary Science
AbbreviationProg. Earth Planet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2197-4284

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