How to format your references using the Animal Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregg C 2010 Eppendorf winner. Parental control over the brain. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330: 770–771.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ee R and Anderson BL 2001 Motion direction, speed and orientation in binocular matching. Nature 410: 690–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu Y, Wang J and Zhang X 2013 Accurate determination of the vapor-liquid-solid contact line tension and the viability of Young equation. Scientific reports 3: 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zheng J, Kwak K, Asbury J, Chen X, Piletic IR and Fayer MD 2005 Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 1338–1343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandrovna MI, Ionin BI and Tebby JC 2013 Alkynes in Cycloadditions. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Vinks AA, Derendorf H and Mouton JW (Eds) 2014 Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Krishnaraj V, Zitoune R and Davim JP 2013 Effects of Drill Points While Drilling at High Spindle Speed. In: Zitoune R and Davim JP (eds) Drilling of Polymer-Matrix Composites pp. 55–65. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Welfare.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014, November 19 NASA Scientists Create Biodegradable Fungus Drone. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2000 Bank Regulators’ Evaluation of Electronic Signature Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chappel AM 2012 A Longitudinal Investigation of Stress, Complete Mental Health, and Social Support among High School Students. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M and Silver-Greenberg J 2017, May 11 Store-Branded Credit Cards Buoy Struggling Retailers, but Mask Their Pain. New York Times: A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gregg 2010).
This sentence cites two references (van Ee & Anderson 2001, Gregg 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Ee & Anderson 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zheng et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Welfare
AbbreviationAnim. Welf.
ISSN (print)0962-7286
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

Other styles