How to format your references using the Animal Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hatfull GF 2002 Microbiology. A tail of two specifi-cities. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 2031–2032.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilks J and Golovkina T 2015 Immunology. Interfering with interferons. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347: 233–234.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubi Y, Meir Y and Avishai Y 2007 Nature of the superconductor-insulator transition in disordered superconductors. Nature 449: 876–880.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stokroos I, Litinetsky L, van der Want JJ and Ishay JS 2001 Magnetic minerals. Keystone-like crystals in cells of hornet combs. Nature 411: 654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins BR 2009 Fundraising Law Made Easy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Trobec R, Vajteršic M and Zinterhof P (Eds) 2009 Parallel Computing: Numerics, Applications, and Trends, 1st edition.. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Shlaes DM and Projan SJ 2009 Antimicrobial Resistance Versus the Discovery and Development of New Antimicrobials. In Mayers DL (ed.) Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: Mechanisms of Drug Resistance pp. 43–50. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Welfare.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015, June 27 Holograms Heading to the International Space Station. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1999 Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Additional Work Remains to Ensure Delivery of Critical Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kovacev RJ 2008 Encouraging employee entrepreneurial spirit: A phenomenological case study of a large technology enterprise. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Buckley C 2013, April 18 Grad Student With Eye On Career in Finance Is Mourned in China. New York Times: A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hatfull 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hatfull 2002, Wilks & Golovkina 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilks & Golovkina 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Stokroos et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Welfare
AbbreviationAnim. Welf.
ISSN (print)0962-7286
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

Other styles