How to format your references using the Animal Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weir K 2015 Microbiology: Inflammatory evidence. Nature 528: S130-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams SR and Stuart GJ 2002 Dependence of EPSP efficacy on synapse location in neocortical pyramidal neurons. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 1907–1910.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCauley E, Nelson WA and Nisbet RM 2008 Small-amplitude cycles emerge from stage-structured interactions in Daphnia-algal systems. Nature 455: 1240–1243.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lunov O, Zablotskii V, Churpita O, Chánová E, Syková E, Dejneka A and Kubinová S 2014 Cell death induced by ozone and various non-thermal plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations. Scientific reports 4: 7129.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boberski V 2010 Community Banking Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Narasimhan P and Triantafillou P (Eds) 2012 Middleware 2012: ACM/IFIP/USENIX 13th International Middleware Conference, Montreal, QC, Canada, December 3-7, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Jin Y and Friedrich R 2008 Large Eddy Simulation of Nozzle Jet - External Flow Interaction. In: Gülhan A (ed) RESPACE – Key Technologies for Reusable Space Systems: Results of a Virtual Institute Programme of the German Helmholtz-Association, 2003 – 2007 pp. 57–81. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Welfare.

Blog post
Andrews R 2016, November 3 Global Sea Level Rise Has Been Underestimated For A Very Long Time. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2004 Medicaid Managed Care: Access and Quality Requirements Specific to Low-Income and Other Special Needs Enrollees. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Virchez Azuara A 2015 A human resource perspective on the development of workforce agility. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon M 2016, May 16 A Boy’s Fate. New York Times: BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weir 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Williams & Stuart 2002, Weir 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams & Stuart 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lunov et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Welfare
AbbreviationAnim. Welf.
ISSN (print)0962-7286
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

Other styles