How to format your references using the Animal Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hormoz S 2013 Amino acid composition of proteins reduces deleterious impact of mutations. Scientific reports 3: 2919.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood BJ and Halliday AN 2010 The lead isotopic age of the Earth can be explained by core formation alone. Nature 465: 767–770.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turvey ST, Green OR and Holdaway RN 2005 Cortical growth marks reveal extended juvenile development in New Zealand moa. Nature 435: 940–943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Allman BE, McMahon PJ, Nugent KA, Paganin D, Jacobson DL, Arif M and Werner SA 2000 Phase radiography with neutrons. Nature 408: 158–159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anwar S and Carroll JJ 2016 Carbon Dioxide Thermodynamic Properties Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dai M (Ed) 2011 Innovative Computing and Information: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Matsushita M and Schoenbaum TJ 2016 A Note on the China Rare Earths Case. In: Matsushita M and Schoenbaum TJ (eds) Emerging Issues in Sustainable Development: International Trade Law and Policy Relating to Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment pp. 79–98. Springer Japan, Tokyo

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Welfare.

Blog post
Hale T 2017, January 3 World’s First Supersized Manned Mech Takes Its First Steps. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998 Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponder K 2017 Easing Stress by Helping Others: How Corporate Volunteer Programs Impact the Stress of Employees Within an Organization. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI; Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is professor of psychology and education at the University of Chicago. His most recent book is ‘“Optimal Experience”’ (with Isabella Csikszentmihalyi) 1989, May 28 MORE WAYS THAN ONE TO BE GOOD. New York Times: 76.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hormoz 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Wood & Halliday 2010, Hormoz 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wood & Halliday 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Allman et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Welfare
AbbreviationAnim. Welf.
ISSN (print)0962-7286
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

Other styles