How to format your references using the Animal Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dando M 2009 Biologists napping while work militarized. Nature 460: 950–951.
A journal article with 2 authors
Appavoo K and Haglund RF Jr 2014 Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator. Scientific reports 4: 6771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang D, Zhao L and Clapham DE 2009 Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies Letm1 as a mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326: 144–147.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Toh RJ, Peng WK, Han J and Pumera M 2014 Direct in vivo electrochemical detection of haemoglobin in red blood cells. Scientific reports 4: 6209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yamarone R 2012 The Trader’s Guide to Key Economic Indicators. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bello DJ 2009 Strength and Stiffness of Engineering Systems. (F A Leckie, Ed) p. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Johnson L 2016 What Is Social Capital? In: Greenberg AG, Gullotta TP, and Bloom M (eds) Social Capital and Community Well-Being: The Serve Here Initiative pp. 53–66. Springer International Publishing, Cham

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Welfare.

Blog post
Andrew D 2016, August 22 King Coal Is Dethroned In The US – And That’s Good News For The Environment. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1995 Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1995-97. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazyck BS 2012 Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J 2017, May 12 Sergeant Says He Faced Taunts at Work After Learning He’s Part Black. New York Times: A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dando 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Dando 2009, Appavoo & Haglund 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Appavoo & Haglund 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Toh et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Welfare
AbbreviationAnim. Welf.
ISSN (print)0962-7286
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

Other styles