How to format your references using the Animal Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peeples MS 2015 Astronomy: Cosmic fog and smog. Nature 517: 444–445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Griffith LG and Naughton G 2002 Tissue engineering--current challenges and expanding opportunities. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 1009–1014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joughin I, Smith BE and Medley B 2014 Marine ice sheet collapse potentially under way for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344: 735–738.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eisenberg M, Kobilo T, Berman DE and Dudai Y 2003 Stability of retrieved memory: inverse correlation with trace dominance. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301: 1102–1104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Best P 2005 Implementing Value at Risk. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kawase H (Ed) 2014 Studies on the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Summerville D, Skormin V, Volynkin A and Moronski J 2005 Prevention of Information Attacks by Run-Time Detection of Self-replication in Computer Codes. In: Gorodetsky V, Kotenko I, and Skormin V (eds) Computer Network Security: Third International Workshop on Mathematical Methods, Models, and Architectures for Computer Network Security, MMM-ACNS 2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 24-28, 2005. Proceedings pp. 54–75. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Welfare.

Blog post
Hale T 2016, August 8 Can You Spot The Hidden Object In This Image Of A Car Seat? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2008 Aviation Weather: FAA Is Reevaluating Services at Key Centers; Both FAA and the National Weather Service Need to Better Ensure Product Quality. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz W 2009 Extended services post reunification to enhance parent-child attachments: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G 2009, November 4 The Daddy of All Rivals: Martinez Is Back. New York Times: B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peeples 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Griffith & Naughton 2002, Peeples 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Griffith & Naughton 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Eisenberg et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Welfare
AbbreviationAnim. Welf.
ISSN (print)0962-7286
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

Other styles