How to format your references using the Animal Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Segalman RA (2008) Materials science. Directing self-assembly toward perfection. Science 321:919–920
A journal article with 2 authors
Peters SE, Foote M (2002) Determinants of extinction in the fossil record. Nature 416:420–424
A journal article with 3 authors
Barry L, Craig GC, Thuburn J (2002) Poleward heat transport by the atmospheric heat engine. Nature 415:774–777
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chung KKK, Thomas B, Li X, et al (2004) S-nitrosylation of parkin regulates ubiquitination and compromises parkin’s protective function. Science 304:1328–1331

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Foote M, Hillier J, Mitchell-Wallace K, Jones M (2017) Natural catastrophe risk management and modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Liverneaux PA, Berner SH, Bednar MS, et al (eds) (2013) Telemicrosurgery: Robot Assisted Microsurgery. Springer, Paris
A chapter in an edited book
Delicado FM, Cuenca P, Orozco-Barbosa L (2006) QoS-Aware Video Communications over TDMA/TDD Wireless Networks. In: Cuenca P, Orozco-Barbosa L (eds) Personal Wireless Communications: IFIP TC6 11th International Conference, PWC 2006, Albacete, Spain, September 20-22, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 50–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Cognition.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) A New Type Of Phantom Memory Has Been Found In The Human Brain. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Information Technology: Agencies Need to Establish Comprehensive Policies to Address Changes to Projects’ Cost, Schedule, and Performance Goals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kotch S (2009) Unduly harsh and unworkably rigid: The death penalty in North Carolina, 1910–1961. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Pelé Remains the Last Word in a Changed World. New York Times SP8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Segalman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Peters and Foote 2002; Segalman 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peters and Foote 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Chung et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Cognition
AbbreviationAnim. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1435-9448
ISSN (online)1435-9456
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles