How to format your references using the Animal Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gerya T (2010) Dynamical instability produces transform faults at mid-ocean ridges. Science 329:1047–1050
A journal article with 2 authors
Melbourne BA, Hastings A (2008) Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity. Nature 454:100–103
A journal article with 3 authors
Weymouth AJ, Hofmann T, Giessibl FJ (2014) Quantifying molecular stiffness and interaction with lateral force microscopy. Science 343:1120–1122
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhao W, Ye L, Zhang S, et al (2014) Ultrathin polyaniline-based buffer layer for highly efficient polymer solar cells with wide applicability. Sci Rep 4:6570

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McEvily AJ (2013) Metal Failures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lasaponara R, Masini N, Orefici G (eds) (2016) The Ancient Nasca World: New Insights from Science and Archaeology. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Shah J (2009) Herbal Treatments for Erectile Dysfunction. In: Ramawat KG (ed) Herbal Drugs: Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 67–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Cognition.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) The Human Brain Has A “Super” Capacity To Recognise Faces — And Neuroscientists, Psychologists, And Police Are Just Starting To Figure Out Why. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Indoor Pollution: Status of Federal Research Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
French DC (2012) A Case against E-Waste: Where One Country’s Trash is (Not) Another Country’s Treasure: Developing National E-Waste Legislation to Regulate E-Waste Exportation. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sengupta S, Hubbard B (2017) Truce That Trump Announced at G-20 Survives Its First Day in Southwestern Syria. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gerya 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Melbourne and Hastings 2008; Gerya 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melbourne and Hastings 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Cognition
AbbreviationAnim. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1435-9448
ISSN (online)1435-9456
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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