How to format your references using the Animal Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leadlay PF (2014) Structural biology: enzyme assembly line pictured. Nature 510:482–483
A journal article with 2 authors
Lorincz A, Nusser Z (2010) Molecular identity of dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels. Science 328:906–909
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson DG, Parman SW, Nowell GM (2007) A link between large mantle melting events and continent growth seen in osmium isotopes. Nature 449:202–205
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Freedman JP, Leach JH, Preble EA, et al (2013) Universal phonon mean free path spectra in crystalline semiconductors at high temperature. Sci Rep 3:2963

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson P (2014) Probabilities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Al-Rubeai M, Naciri M (eds) (2014) Stem Cells and Cell Therapy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Biswas D, Vidyasankar K (2012) Privacy Preserving Cloud Transactions. In: Meersman R, Panetto H, Dillon T, et al. (eds) On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2012: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, DOA-SVI, and ODBASE 2012, Rome, Italy, September 10-14, 2012. Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 511–526

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Cognition.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) A March For Science Will Take Place Around The World On April 22. Here’s How To Get Involved. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) NASA: Choices and Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez M (2015) Support groups for caregivers of older adults with end stage renal disease: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (1999) Home Woes Continue. New York Times 810

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leadlay 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lorincz and Nusser 2010; Leadlay 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lorincz and Nusser 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Freedman et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Cognition
AbbreviationAnim. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1435-9448
ISSN (online)1435-9456
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles