How to format your references using the Animal Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fergany N (2006) Islam and Science: steps towards reform. Nature 444:33–34
A journal article with 2 authors
Peng L, Mortensen NA (2014) Plasmonic-cavity model for radiating nano-rod antennas. Sci Rep 4:3825
A journal article with 3 authors
Mang PK, Larochelle S, Greven M (2003) Condensed-matter physics: spurious magnetism in high-T(c) superconductor. Nature 426:139–40; discussion 140
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Luzio A, Criante L, D’Innocenzo V, Caironi M (2013) Control of charge transport in a semiconducting copolymer by solvent-induced long-range order. Sci Rep 3:3425

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight JG (2005) Environmental Analysis and Technology for the Refining Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gohberg I, Alpay D, Arazy J, et al (eds) (2005) Recent Advances in Operator Theory and its Applications: The Israel Gohberg Anniversary Volume. Birkhäuser, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmadi N, Baroiller J-F, D’Cotta Carreras H, Morillon R (2016) Adaptation to Salinity. In: Torquebiau E (ed) Climate Change and Agriculture Worldwide. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 45–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Cognition.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) A Sprinkling Of Rain Set Off These Puffball Fungi In Wisconsin. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Student Athletes: Most Schools Meet Proposed Academic Performance Reporting Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adrian DE (2009) School scheduling models and the achievement of at-risk students: A causal-comparative study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Skip the Climbing Wall: This Start-Up Just Wants to Hang On. New York Times H4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fergany 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Fergany 2006; Peng and Mortensen 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peng and Mortensen 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Luzio et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Cognition
AbbreviationAnim. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1435-9448
ISSN (online)1435-9456
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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