How to format your references using the Animal Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koshland DE Jr (2004) Crazy, but correct. Nature 432:447
A journal article with 2 authors
Kern B, Martin C (2002) Optical pulsations from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U0142+61. Nature 417:527–529
A journal article with 3 authors
Santiago J, Henzler C, Hothorn M (2013) Molecular mechanism for plant steroid receptor activation by somatic embryogenesis co-receptor kinases. Science 341:889–892
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Thomas RJ, Krehbiel PR, Rison W, et al (2007) Electrical activity during the 2006 Mount St. Augustine volcanic eruptions. Science 315:1097

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowlinson M (2016) A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Liu S (ed) (2013) Structured Object-Oriented Formal Language and Method: Second International Workshop, SOFL 2012, Kyoto, Japan, November 13, 2012. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Pieraccini R (2010) The Industry of Spoken-Dialog Systems and the Third Generation of Interactive Applications. In: Chen F (ed) Speech Technology: Theory and Applications. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 61–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Cognition.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Time To Take A Sick Day: Working When Ill Is Bad For You – And Your Company. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Status and Issues Pertaining to the Proposed Development of the Space Telescope Project. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker MC (2010) A descriptive study of the view from the top: Perspectives of experts in continuing medical education. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George N (2012) A Soul Fable, Reimagined For a New Era. New York Times AR18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koshland 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kern and Martin 2002; Koshland 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kern and Martin 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Thomas et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Cognition
AbbreviationAnim. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1435-9448
ISSN (online)1435-9456
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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