How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill, W.G. Genetics. A century of corn selection. Science 2005, 307, 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ricklefs, R.E.; Renner, S.S. Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality. Science 2012, 335, 464–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weymouth, A.J.; Hofmann, T.; Giessibl, F.J. Quantifying molecular stiffness and interaction with lateral force microscopy. Science 2014, 343, 1120–1122.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reilly, J.; Stone, P.H.; Forest, C.E.; Webster, M.D.; Jacoby, H.D.; Prinn, R.G. Climate change. Uncertainty and climate change assessments. Science 2001, 293, 430–433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belsey, C. A Future for Criticism; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444393415.
An edited book
Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2011 and 2012 Workshops: Combined WISE 2011 and WISE 2012 Workshops, Sydney Australia, October 12-14, 2011 and Paphos, Cyprus, November 28-30, 2012, Revised Selected Papers; Haller, A., Huang, G., Huang, Z., Paik, H.-Y., Sheng, Q.Z., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 7652; ISBN 9783642383328.
A chapter in an edited book
Peeters, S. Choosing the Best Workflow. In Flash Builder and Flash Catalyst: The New Workflow; Andres, C., Anglin, S., Beckner, M., Buckingham, E., Cornell, G., Gennick, J., Hassell, J., Lowman, M., Moodie, M., Parkes, D., Pepper, J., Pohlmann, F., Pundick, D., Renow-Clarke, B., Shakeshaft, D., Wade, M., Welsh, T., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2010; pp. 131–185 ISBN 9781430228356.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Latest Dark Matter Survey Finds Inconsistencies With Previous Observations Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Medicaid: States’ Efforts to Maximize Federal Reimbursements Highlight Need for Improved Federal Oversight; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rey, D. Chaos, Observability and Symplectic Structure in Optimal Estimation. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grisham, J. John Grisham’s Suggestions for Writing Popular Fiction. New York Times 2017, BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Med.
ISSN (online)2077-0383

Other styles