How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jewkes, R. HIV/AIDS. Gender inequities must be addressed in HIV prevention. Science 2010, 329, 145–147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ekström, G.; Stark, C.P. Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics. Science 2013, 339, 1416–1419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akbarzadeh, A.; Qiu, C.-W.; Danner, A.J. Exploiting design freedom in biaxial dielectrics to enable spatially overlapping optical instruments. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2055.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Abbondanzieri, E.A.; Greenleaf, W.J.; Shaevitz, J.W.; Landick, R.; Block, S.M. Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase. Nature 2005, 438, 460–465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghiani, G.; Laporte, G.; Musmanno, R. Introduction to Logistics Systems Management; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118492185.
An edited book
Reexamining Academic Freedom in Religiously Affiliated Universities: Transcending Orthodoxies; Garcia, K., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319397863.
A chapter in an edited book
Ben Mrad, A.; Delcroix, V.; Maalej, M.A.; Piechowiak, S.; Abid, M. Uncertain Evidence in Bayesian Networks: Presentation and Comparison on a Simple Example. In Advances in Computational Intelligence: 14th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems, IPMU 2012, Catania, Italy, July 9-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part III; Greco, S., Bouchon-Meunier, B., Coletti, G., Fedrizzi, M., Matarazzo, B., Yager, R.R., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 39–48 ISBN 9783642317170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
Taub, B. Check Out What Pops Out When This Object Is Cut Open Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Some Coordination Efforts Among Programs Providing Transportation Services, but Obstacles Persist; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alderson, M. Procedural Justice and Police Encounters with Homeless Injecting Drug Users. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M. ‘Transparency’ Of Tweets Risks Eroding Media’s Trust. New York Times 2017, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Med.
ISSN (online)2077-0383

Other styles