How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jarrold, M.F. The smallest fullerene. Nature 2000, 407, 26–27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Linstedt, A.D. Manganese blocks intracellular trafficking of Shiga toxin and protects against Shiga toxicosis. Science 2012, 335, 332–335.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, C.-Y.; Robinson, K.J.; Doe, C.Q. Lgl, Pins and aPKC regulate neuroblast self-renewal versus differentiation. Nature 2006, 439, 594–598.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, T.-B.; Qin, Y.-H.; Lei, F.-Y.; Huang, W.-F.; Drummen, G.P.C. Prohibitin is associated with antioxidative protection in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3123.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elliott, C.H.; Smith, L.L. Overcoming Anxiety for Dummies®; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118269220.
An edited book
Perez, C.A. Technical Basis of Radiation Therapy: Practical Clinical Applications; Vijayakumar, S., Levitt, S.H., Purdy, J.A., Eds.; Medical Radiology, Radiation Oncology; 4th Revised Edition.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; ISBN 9783540213383.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuo, C.-H.; Hung, C.-H. Genetics and Epigenetic Regulation in Allergic Diseases. In Allergy Bioinformatics; Tao, A., Raz, E., Eds.; Translational Bioinformatics; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2015; pp. 49–65 ISBN 9789401774420.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. Melting Ice Could Unleash Ancient Viruses Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Department of Education: Improved Oversight and Controls Could Help Education Better Respond to Evolving Priorities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curiel, A.R. A re-examination of the Meyers and Volbrecht motor equation for the identification of suspect effort. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J.F. Reverse Mortgages Are Quietly Making a Comeback. New York Times 2016, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Med.
ISSN (online)2077-0383

Other styles