How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Newman, D.K. Microbiology. Feasting on Minerals. Science 2010, 327, 793–794.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoshida, N.; Toyoda, S. Constraining the Atmospheric N2O Budget from Intramolecular Site Preference in N2O Isotopomers. Nature 2000, 405, 330–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sund, J.; Andér, M.; Aqvist, J. Principles of Stop-Codon Reading on the Ribosome. Nature 2010, 465, 947–950.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cotton, F.A.; Gruhn, N.E.; Gu, J.; Huang, P.; Lichtenberger, D.L.; Murillo, C.A.; Van Dorn, L.O.; Wilkinson, C.C. Closed-Shell Molecules That Ionize More Readily than Cesium. Science 2002, 298, 1971–1974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maidl, B.; Herrenknecht, M.; Maidl, U.; Wehrmeyer, G. Mechanised Shield Tunnelling; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2012; ISBN 9783433601051.
An edited book
Applications and Techniques in Information Security: 6th International Conference, ATIS 2016, Cairns, QLD, Australia, October 26-28, 2016, Proceedings; Batten, L., Li, G., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Singapore, 2016; Vol. 651; ISBN 9789811027406.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsai, C.-F. Zisi and the Thought of Zisi and Mencius School. In Dao Companion to Classical Confucian Philosophy; Shen, V., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; pp. 119–138 ISBN 9789048129355.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Blog post
Fang, J. Costa Rican Surge In Snakebites Linked To El Niño Cycles (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Changes in Electricity-Related R&D Funding; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alameddine, A. Perceptions of Executives from Seven Selected Companies of the Use of Social Media in Marketing Practices. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. Sandwiches From an Heirloom. New York Times 2007, 14NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Med.
ISSN (online)2077-0383

Other styles