How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. F. Service, “American Chemical Society meeting. Science invades the Magic Kingdom,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5567, pp. 462–463, Apr. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. M. Blander and R. Medzhitov, “Toll-dependent selection of microbial antigens for presentation by dendritic cells,” Nature, vol. 440, no. 7085, pp. 808–812, Apr. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. J. Hoeppner, M. O. Hengartner, and R. Schnabel, “Engulfment genes cooperate with ced-3 to promote cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nature, vol. 412, no. 6843, pp. 202–206, Jul. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Celler, I. Hödl, A. Simone, T. J. Battin, and C. Picioreanu, “A mass-spring model unveils the morphogenesis of phototrophic Diatoma biofilms,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3649, Jan. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. De Larminat, Climate Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
P. F. Patel-Schneider et al., Eds., The Semantic Web – ISWC 2010: 9th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2010, Shanghai, China, November 7-11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, vol. 6497. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Javed and M. Shah, “Tracking in Multiple Cameras with Disjoint Views,” in Automated Multi-Camera Surveillance: Algorithms and Practice, M. Shah, Ed. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2008, pp. 1–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Communications.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Isolated Hunter-Gatherers Living in the Amazon Have The Most Diverse Microbiome Ever Documented In Humans,” IFLScience, Apr. 18, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 4,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 144050, Jan. 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Gutierrez, “Providing Hope: A Systematic Development of a Resource Manual for Mental Health Professionals Treating Latino/a Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Cave and I. Kwai, “Australians Shocked by a U.S. Killing: ‘It Would Have Never Happened Here,’” New York Times, p. A19, Jul. 19, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Communications
ISSN (print)0090-6778
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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