How to format your references using the Anaesthesia and Intensive Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murzin AG. Biochemistry. Metamorphic proteins. Science. 2008 Jun 27;320(5884):1725–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanders RW, Moore JP. HIV: A stamp on the envelope. Nature. 2014 Oct 23;514(7523):437–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Truog RD, Kesselheim AS, Joffe S. Research ethics. Paying patients for their tissue: the legacy of Henrietta Lacks. Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):37–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Qin S, Lei W, Liu D, Chen Y. In-situ and tunable nitrogen-doping of MoS2 nanosheets. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 23;4:7582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keedwell E, Narayanan A. Intelligent Bioinformatics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Duddy K, Kappel G, editors. Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: 6th International Conference, ICMT 2013, Budapest, Hungary, June 18-19, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XIV, 221 p. 85 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7909).
A chapter in an edited book
Wan Y. New Mechanism of Bone Cancer Pain: Tumor Tissue-Derived Endogenous Formaldehyde Induced Bone Cancer Pain via TRPV1 Activation. In: Ma C, Huang Y, editors. Translational Research in Pain and Itch. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. p. 41–58. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

Blog post
Andrews R. Beijing Creates Anti-Smog Police To Tackle Air Polluters [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Nov. Report No.: PEMD-95-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wallace DR. A Comparative Analysis of a Conventional Versus a Computer-assisted Technique for Identification of Mechanical Power Press Hazards [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. The Here and Now and the Hereafter: Getting to Know the Man in the Makeup. New York Times. 2016 Oct 26;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia and Intensive Care
ISSN (print)0310-057X
ISSN (online)1448-0271

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