How to format your references using the Anaesthesia and Intensive Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liu RC. Sensory systems: The yin and yang of cortical oxytocin. Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):444–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poucet B, Sargolini F. Neuroscience. A trace of your place. Science. 2013 Apr 5;340(6128):35–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi K, Hasegawa J, Matsunaga S. The boundary of the meristematic and elongation zones in roots: endoreduplication precedes rapid cell expansion. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 14;3:2723.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gandha K, Elkins K, Poudyal N, Liu X, Liu JP. High energy product developed from cobalt nanowires. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 18;4:5345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liautaud M. Breaking Through. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Randazzo G, Jackson DWT, Cooper JAG, editors. Sand and Gravel Spits. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. IX, 344 p. 142 illus., 96 illus. in color. (Coastal Research Library; vol. 12).
A chapter in an edited book
Larouche P, d’Entremont A, Thompson G, Mulpuri K. Fundamental Concepts in Evidence-Based Medicine. In: van de Kelft E, editor. Surgery of the Spine and Spinal Cord: A Neurosurgical Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

Blog post
Andrew D. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Is Masturbation Good For You? Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunities To Improve the Redistribution of the Federal Government’s Excess Automatic Data Processing Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Jun. Report No.: B-115369.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shroff N. Efficient sensing, summarization and classification of videos [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Ethel M. Smyth, Opera Composer, Met a Chorus of Critical Disdain in 1903. New York Times. 2016 Feb 19;C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia and Intensive Care
ISSN (print)0310-057X
ISSN (online)1448-0271

Other styles