How to format your references using the Optical Materials Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Materials Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. R. Hilton, "Geochemistry. The leaking mantle," Science 318(5855), 1389–1390 (2007).
A journal article with 2 authors
B. M. Olivera and R. W. Teichert, "Neuroscience: chemical ecology of pain," Nature 479(7373), 306–307 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
A. G. Arimbasseri, G. A. Kassavetis, and R. J. Maraia, "Transcription. Comment on “Mechanism of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III transcription termination,”" Science 345(6196), 524 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. K. Lotze, H. S. Lenihan, B. J. Bourque, R. H. Bradbury, R. G. Cooke, M. C. Kay, S. M. Kidwell, M. X. Kirby, C. H. Peterson, and J. B. C. Jackson, "Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas," Science 312(5781), 1806–1809 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. A. Kovalev, Solutions in Lidar Profiling of the Atmosphere (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015).
An edited book
H. K. Nibanupudi and R. Shaw, eds., Mountain Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction, Disaster Risk Reduction, Methods, Approaches and Practices (Springer Japan, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
D. Kernert, F. Köhler, and W. Lehner, "Bringing Linear Algebra Objects to Life in a Column-Oriented In-Memory Database," in In Memory Data Management and Analysis: First and Second International Workshops, IMDM 2013, Riva Del Garda, Italy, August 26, 2013, IMDM 2014, Hongzhou, China, September 1, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, A. Jagatheesan, J. Levandoski, T. Neumann, and A. Pavlo, eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer International Publishing, 2015), pp. 44–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Materials Express.

Blog post
S. Luntz, "Scientists Find Traces Of Enormous Solar Storms That Once Hit The Earth,"


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Travel and Communicable Diseases: Comprehensive Federal Plan Needed for U.S. Aviation System’s Preparedness (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2015).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Parhad, "Energy scavenging using piezoelectric sensors to power in pavement intelligent vehicle detection systems," Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. T. Kaufman, "Lillian Ross Dies at 99; A New Yorker Reporter Whose Memoir Rankled," New York Times (September 20, 2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Materials Express
ISSN (online)2159-3930

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