How to format your references using the Optical Materials Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Materials Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. S. Anderson, "GEOPHYSICS. Pinched topography initiates the critical zone," Science 350(6260), 506–507 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
D. A. Hogan and R. Kolter, "Pseudomonas-Candida interactions: an ecological role for virulence factors," Science 296(5576), 2229–2232 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Reinhardt, D. K. Dowling, and E. H. Morrow, "Medicine. Mitochondrial replacement, evolution, and the clinic," Science 341(6152), 1345–1346 (2013).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.-M. Lee, E. Pippel, U. Gösele, C. Dresbach, Y. Qin, C. V. Chandran, T. Bräuniger, G. Hause, and M. Knez, "Greatly increased toughness of infiltrated spider silk," Science 324(5926), 488–492 (2009).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Lloret, G. Shulman, and R. M. Love, Condition and Health Indicators of Exploited Marine Fishes (John Wiley & Sons, 2013).
An edited book
S. Adibi, ed., Mobile Health: A Technology Road Map, Springer Series in Bio-/Neuroinformatics (Springer International Publishing, 2015), 5.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Paolicchi, E. Neri, and P. Marcheschi, "Il protocollo DICOM," in Produrre Ed Elaborare Immagini Diagnostiche, P. Marcheschi and D. Caramella, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 51–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Materials Express.

Blog post
J. Davis, "Researchers Discover A New Family Of The World’s Most Endangered Ape,"


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Internet Infrastructure: DHS Faces Challenges in Developing a Joint Public/Private Recovery Plan (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. S. Baker, "Bridging the Gap: Finding the Language of Soul," Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, "Two Astros-Mets Games Offer Succor to Houston," New York Times (September 3, 2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Materials Express
ISSN (online)2159-3930

Other styles