How to format your references using the Optical Materials Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Materials Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Wuethrich, "CONSERVATION BIOLOGY: Feds Team Up With a Company to Protect 17 Threatened Fish Species," Science 289(5478), 385 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
L. I. Glazman and R. C. Ashoori, "Physics. Coupling qubits by waves on the electron sea," Science 304(5670), 524–525 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Boos, M. Yekezare, and J. F. X. Diffley, "Identification of a heteromeric complex that promotes DNA replication origin firing in human cells," Science 340(6135), 981–984 (2013).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Scheffer, S. Carpenter, J. A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker, "Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems," Nature 413(6856), 591–596 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. W. Luther III, Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016).
An edited book
M. Pelcat, Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping: A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE ENodeB, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering (Springer, 2013), 171.
A chapter in an edited book
F. A. Castro, C. M. P. Silva Santos, and J. M. L. M. Palma, "Parallelisation of the CFD Code of a CFD-NWP Coupled System for the Simulation of Atmospheric Flows over Complex Terrain," in High Performance Computing for Computational Science - VECPAR 2008: 8th International Conference, Toulouse, France, June 24-27, 2008. Revised Selected Papers, J. M. L. M. Palma, P. R. Amestoy, M. Daydé, M. Mattoso, and J. C. Lopes, eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer, 2008), pp. 27–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Materials Express.

Blog post
J. Fang, "The Same Gene Blackens Moths And Colors Butterflies,"


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Army Networks: Opportunities Exist to Better Utilize Results from Network Integration Evaluations (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. D. Brigida, "Target stock price runup prior to acquisitions," Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. D. Shear, L. Goodstein, and M. Haberman, "Trump Is Expected to Relax Tax Rules on Churches That Actively Take Part in Politics," New York Times (May 3, 2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Materials Express
ISSN (online)2159-3930

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