How to format your references using the Optical Materials Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Materials Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. F. Krauss, "Physics. Control at the quantum level," Science 308(5725), 1122–1123 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Li and J. Xu, "Meta-analysis of the association between dietary lycopene intake and ovarian cancer risk in postmenopausal women," Sci. Rep. 4, 4885 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Behnia, L. Balicas, and Y. Kopelevich, "Signatures of electron fractionalization in ultraquantum bismuth," Science 317(5845), 1729–1731 (2007).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Sun, H.-G. Liao, K. Niu, and H. Zheng, "Structural and morphological evolution of lead dendrites during electrochemical migration," Sci. Rep. 3, 3227 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Hornberg, Handbook of Machine and Computer Vision (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2017).
An edited book
A. E. Nicogossian, R. S. Williams, C. L. Huntoon, C. R. Doarn, J. D. Polk, and V. S. Schneider, eds., Space Physiology and Medicine: From Evidence to Practice, 4th ed. 2016 (Springer, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
J. Wang, X. Zhang, and Q. Su, "Rare Earth Solar Spectral Convertor for Si Solar Cells," in Phosphors, Up Conversion Nano Particles, Quantum Dots and Their Applications: Volume 2, R.-S. Liu, ed. (Springer, 2016), pp. 139–166.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Materials Express.

Blog post
J. Davis, "Zika Virus May Shrink Testicles And Cause Fertility Problems In Men,"


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: FCC Should Evaluate the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Lifeline Program (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2015).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Q. Weaver, "Relationships between leadership practices of founders and successors and economic performance of select family businesses," Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, "PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD," New York Times (December 12, 1993).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Materials Express
ISSN (online)2159-3930

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