How to format your references using the Anaerobe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaerobe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Gravitz, Food science: taste bud hackers, Nature. 486 (2012) S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.R. Lyons, E.D. Young, CO self-shielding as the origin of oxygen isotope anomalies in the early solar nebula, Nature. 435 (2005) 317–320.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Nemoto, M.M. Fergusson, T. Finkel, Nutrient availability regulates SIRT1 through a forkhead-dependent pathway, Science. 306 (2004) 2105–2108.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Wang, S. Rao, J. Chu, X. Shen, D.N. Levasseur, T.W. Theunissen, S.H. Orkin, A protein interaction network for pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, Nature. 444 (2006) 364–368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Traitler, Food Industry Innovation School, The, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
J. Hage, B. Akkermans, eds., Introduction to Law, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Bauer, P. Baumgartner, M. Diller, M. Norrish, Tableaux for Verification of Data-Centric Processes, in: D. Galmiche, D. Larchey-Wendling (Eds.), Automated Reasoning with Analytic Tableaux and Related Methods: 22nd International Conference, TABLEAUX 2013, Nancy, France, September 16-19, 2013, Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 28–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaerobe.

Blog post
J. Fang, Stem Cell Injections Revitalize Failing Hearts, Trial Results Show, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Approaches to Attract and Fund International Students in the United States and Abroad, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Rivera, The Role of Privacy, Brand Labeling, and Cost on Condom Procurement: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess a University Policy, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Markoff, John Ellenby, Creator of Early Laptop, Dies at 75, New York Times. (2016) A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaerobe
ISSN (print)1075-9964
Infectious Diseases

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