How to format your references using the Anaerobe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaerobe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.G. de Wijn, Astronomy. Measuring solar magnetism, Science. 338 (2012) 476–477.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Stöhr, M. Esveld, Public health. Will vaccines be available for the next influenza pandemic?, Science. 306 (2004) 2195–2196.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Loewe, V. Textor, S. Scherer, High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli, Science. 302 (2003) 1558–1560.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Nomura, H. Ohta, A. Takagi, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, Room-temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors, Nature. 432 (2004) 488–492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Jaitly, Practical Operational Due Diligence on Hedge Funds, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
T. Payan, E. de la Garza, eds., Undecided Nation: Political Gridlock and the Immigration Crisis, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Escobar, R. Sasse, J. Meseguer, Folding Variant Narrowing and Optimal Variant Termination, in: P.C. Ölveczky (Ed.), Rewriting Logic and Its Applications: 8th International Workshop, WRLA 2010, Held as a Satellite Event of ETAPS 2010, Paphos, Cyprus, March 20-21, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 52–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaerobe.

Blog post
S. Luntz, The Oldest Known Living Organisms In The World, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Mitigate Risk of Major Disruptions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.L. Sweeney, Learning in human -dolphin interactions at zoological facilities, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Bowley, Master of Trades, if Not Art, Says He Was Duped, New York Times. (2016) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaerobe
ISSN (print)1075-9964
Infectious Diseases

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