How to format your references using the Anaerobe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaerobe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Frische, It is time for full disclosure of author contributions, Nature. 489 (2012) 475.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Li, J.V. Ravetch, Inhibitory Fcγ receptor engagement drives adjuvant and anti-tumor activities of agonistic CD40 antibodies, Science. 333 (2011) 1030–1034.
A journal article with 3 authors
F.D. Batista, D. Iber, M.S. Neuberger, B cells acquire antigen from target cells after synapse formation, Nature. 411 (2001) 489–494.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Varga, A. Losonczy, B.V. Zemelman, Z. Borhegyi, G. Nyiri, A. Domonkos, B. Hangya, N. Holderith, J.C. Magee, T.F. Freund, Fast synaptic subcortical control of hippocampal circuits, Science. 326 (2009) 449–453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Purkis, V. Klemas, Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West Sussex, UK, 2011.
An edited book
A.H. Hamel, F. Heyde, A. Löhne, B. Rudloff, C. Schrage, eds., Set Optimization and Applications - The State of the Art: From Set Relations to Set-Valued Risk Measures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
B.L. Bihari, M. Wong, A. Wang, B.R. de Supinski, W. Chen, A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP II: Hardware Transactional Memory, in: B.M. Chapman, F. Massaioli, M.S. Müller, M. Rorro (Eds.), OpenMP in a Heterogeneous World: 8th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2012, Rome, Italy, June 11-13, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 44–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaerobe.

Blog post
R. Andrews, The Dino-Killing Asteroid Picked The Perfect Spot To Slam Into The Planet, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ADP Procurements: Food and Drug Administration Circumvented Procurement Regulations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W.B. McCorkle, Tongue, Nib, Block, Bit: Rhetorical Delivery and Technologies of Writing, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, The President Changes His Tone, if Not His Tune, New York Times. (2017) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaerobe
ISSN (print)1075-9964
Infectious Diseases

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