How to format your references using the Anaerobe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaerobe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.C. Holmes, Virology. 1918 and all that, Science. 303 (2004) 1787–1788.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.L. Rolston, W.D. Phillips, Nonlinear and quantum atom optics, Nature. 416 (2002) 219–224.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.A. Stott, D.A. Stone, M.R. Allen, Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003, Nature. 432 (2004) 610–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Sun, J. Wang, W. Zhao, M. Tian, M. Singh, M.H.W. Chan, Voltage-current properties of superconducting amorphous tungsten nanostrips, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.J. Neff, R.C. Moss, The Future of Nonprofits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
G.H. Pollack, W.-C. Chin, eds., Phase Transitions in Cell Biology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Acchar, E.J.V. Dultra, Using CBA in Ceramic Formulations, in: E. J. V. Dultra (Ed.), Ceramic Materials from Coffee Bagasse Ash Waste, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 31–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaerobe.

Blog post
E. Andrew, There Was A Decline Of Male Diversity When Humans Took To Agriculture, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Preliminary Observations on Past, Present, and Future, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H.-J. Song, Strategic Constraints of Economic Interdependence: South Korea’s Changing Strategy in the Face of a Rising China, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Leland, Carlsen, ‘Mozart of Chess,’ Overwhelms Challenger to Win Championship, New York Times. (2016) A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaerobe
ISSN (print)1075-9964
Infectious Diseases

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