How to format your references using the Anaerobe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaerobe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Lightman, A tale of two loves, Nature. 434 (2005) 299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Bourc’his, O. Voinnet, A small-RNA perspective on gametogenesis, fertilization, and early zygotic development, Science. 330 (2010) 617–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Mora, R. Danovaro, M. Loreau, Alternative hypotheses to explain why biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships are concave-up in some natural ecosystems but concave-down in manipulative experiments, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5427.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Tanaka, P. Chien, N. Naber, R. Cooke, J.S. Weissman, Conformational variations in an infectious protein determine prion strain differences, Nature. 428 (2004) 323–328.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Radwanska, A. Stankiewicz, A. Wosatko, J. Pamin, Plate and Shell Structures, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
R. Pielke, R.A. Klein, eds., Presidential Science Advisors: Perspectives and Reflections on Science, Policy and Politics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
K.M. van Hee, N. Sidorova, J.M. van der Werf, Business Process Modeling Using Petri Nets, in: K. Jensen, W.M.P. van der Aalst, G. Balbo, M. Koutny, K. Wolf (Eds.), Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency VII, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 116–161.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaerobe.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Vaccine Against Alzheimer’s Disease Protein Passes First Stage Of Clinical Trials, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Force Decision Not To Purchase Certain Automatic Data Processing Equipment Located at Its Environmental Technical Applications Center, Washington, D.C, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.C. Gifford, (Re)making men, representing the Caribbean nation: Authorial individuation in works by Fred D’aguiar, Robert Antoni, and Marlon James, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. MacFARQUHAR, A Developer and Kremlin Fixer With a Web of Trump Contacts, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaerobe
ISSN (print)1075-9964
Infectious Diseases

Other styles